This study piloted a knowledge translation (KT) intervention promoting evidence-based home care through social interaction. A total of 33 providers organized into 5 heterogeneous, geographically defined action groups participated in 5 researcher-facilitated meetings based on the participatory action model. The KT evidence reflects an empowering partnership approach to service delivery. Exploratory investigation included quantitative pre-post measurement of outcomes and qualitative description of data, presented herein. The critical reflections of the groups reveal macro-, meso-, and micro-level barriers to and facilitators of KT as well as recommendations for achieving KT. Insights gleaned from the findings have informed the evolution of the KT intervention to engage all 3 levels in addressing barriers and facilitators, with a conscious effort to transcend "push" and "pull" tendencies and enact transformative leadership. The findings suggest the merit of a more prolonged longitudinal investigation with expanded participation.
Changes in health services and care needs have created high demand for case management of in-home services. To address this challenge, several models of case management have been used. Evaluations to date suggest that clients need different approaches for different circumstances at different times to optimize cost-effectiveness. Accordingly, one Canadian home care program adopted flexible client-driven case management engaging clients as partners in flexibly selecting either an integrated team, consumer-managed or brokerage model of case management in keeping with their preferences and abilities. Using an exploratory, multimeasure quasi-experimental design, a generic model of program evaluation, and both quantitative and qualitative methods, researchers identified challenges in implementing this intervention, policy impediments the clients characteristically in each of the three case management models, and client, provider, and caregiver outcomes of flexible, client-driven care. While further longitudinal investigation is needed findings suggest several important considerations for those interested in this option for care management. Alternative case management models do attract different client groups, and having a choice does not alter care costs or outcomes. Flexible client-driven case management may be experienced positively by case managers and other providers.
Erratum In: Care Manag J. 2008;9(2):table of contentsHoch, Jeffrey [corrected to Hoch, Jeffrey S]
In the current context of health care, health professionals' accountability obligations may be more extensive than the degree of autonomy that they are permitted to exercise. To date, how professionals fulfil their obligations with regard to this potential for dissonance has not been investigated. The purpose of this Grounded Theory study was to examine how one professional group, occupational therapists, enacted their accountability obligations within their current practice context. Interviews with 21 therapists across three practice sectors in one Canadian province elicited a detailed portrait of the contextual elements within which accountability enactment took place, and a view of the dynamic interplay of these elements with the decision-making involved in fulfilling professional accountabilities. Practitioners moved back and forth between conscious juggling of accountability expectations and more automatically applying tacit practice knowledge. Beyond non-negotiable bottom line commitments to their formal ethical obligations and to retaining autonomy for their clinical recommendations, practitioners' decisions reflected the goal of doing their best. However, participants' efforts to find a balance between satisfactorily fulfilling their obligations and acknowledging the frequently unavoidable reality of contextual constraints elicited inconsistent patterns. The study findings raise concerns about ensuring quality of services and the impact on professionals. Although practitioners have an important role to play in addressing these challenges, other stakeholders, for example, the professional regulatory bodies, also must play a role in creating a coherent accountability framework. Further research is needed to obtain greater understanding of professional accountability enactment across health professions, practice sectors and health jurisdictions, and to explore managerial and professional regulatory bodies' perspectives, roles and responsibilities.
To evaluate a new program, Integrating Physician Services in the Home (IPSITH), to integrate family practice and home care for acutely ill patients.
Causal model, mixed-method, multi-measures design including comparison of IPSITH and non-IPSITH patients. Data were collected through chart reviews and through surveys of IPSITH and non-IPSITH patients, caregivers, family physicians, and community nurses.
London, Ont, and surrounding communities, where home care is coordinated through the Community Care Access Centre.
A total of 82 patients receiving the new IPSITH program of care (including 29 family physicians and 1 nurse practitioner), 82 non-randomized matched patients receiving usual care (and their physicians), community nurses, and caregivers.
Emergency department (ED) visits and satisfaction with care. Analysis included a process evaluation of the IPSITH program and an outcomes evaluation comparing IPSITH and non-IPSITH patients.
Patients and family physicians were very satisfied with the addition of a nurse practitioner to the IPSITH team. Controlling for symptom severity, a significantly smaller proportion of IPSITH patients had ED visits (3.7% versus 20.7%; P = .002), and IPSITH patients and their caregivers, family physicians, and community nurses had significantly higher levels of satisfaction (P
Interdisciplinary teamwork is particularly difficult to achieve in the community context where geographical separateness and solo practices impede face to face contact and collaborative practice. Understanding the processes that occur within interdisciplinary teams is imperative, since client outcomes are influenced by interdisciplinary teamwork. The purpose of this exploratory study was to describe the processes that occur within interdisciplinary teams that deliver in-home care. Applying grounded theory methodology, the researcher conducted unstructured in-depth interviews with a purposeful sample of healthcare providers and used constant comparative analysis to elicit the findings. Findings revealed three key team processes: networking, navigating, and aligning. The descriptions afford several insights that are applicable to in-home healthcare agencies attempting to achieve effective interdisciplinary team functioning.
Clients living at home with chronic disabling conditions together with their caregivers, service providers, and policymakers face major challenges in optimizing health care. In this critical feminist interpretive study we examined the experiences of women receiving home care for chronic disabling conditions. Five themes emerged: struggling with the embodied limitations of disabling chronic conditions; actively seeking health; struggling with service limitations; seeking ways to manage; and living with isolation and marginalization. Having done this study, we learned that home care services do not always contribute sufficiently to the overall health and well-being of women living with chronic disabling conditions and, in fact, may negatively impact upon their health.