To assess associations between the intake of different types of alcoholic beverages and the 32-year incidence of myocardial infarction, stroke, diabetes, and cancer, as well as mortality, in a middle-aged female population.
Gothenburg, Sweden, population about 430 000.
Representative sample of a general population of women (1462 in total) aged 38 to 60 years in 1968-1969, followed up to the ages of 70 to 92 years in 2000-2001.
Associations between alcohol intake and later risk of mortality and morbidity from myocardial infarction, stroke, diabetes, and cancer, studied longitudinally.
During the follow-up period, 185 women developed myocardial infarction, 162 developed stroke, 160 women became diabetic, and 345 developed cancer. Women who drank beer had a 30% lower risk (hazards ratio (HR) 0.70, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.50-0.95) of developing myocardial infarcion and almost half the risk (HR 0.51 CI 0.33-0.80). A significant association between increased risk of death from cancer and high spirits consumption was also shown (hazards ratio [HR] 1.47, CI 1.06-2.05).
Women with moderate consumption of beer had a reduced risk of developing myocardial infarction. High spirits consumption was associated with increased risk of cancer mortality.
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Enlarged subcutaneous abdominal adipocytes have been shown to predict incidence of type 2 diabetes (T2D) in the Pima population of Arizona (USA). We investigated the role of subcutaneous abdominal adipocyte size (AAS), as well as femoral adipocyte size (FAS), as predictors of T2D in a population-based Swedish cohort. In 1974-1975, a sample of 1302 middle-aged women underwent a health examination, including anthropometry and evaluation of parental medical history. In addition, body composition (total body potassium and total body water), AAS and FAS (adipose tissue needle biopsy) were assessed in a subsample of 245 women. Incidence of T2D was followed until 2001, with 36 cases eligible for inclusion in this analysis. Women developing T2D had larger AAS at baseline vs. women remaining healthy (age/heredity-adjusted hazard ratio for increase of AAS by 1 sd [AAS-HR] 1.91; P
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the study was to explore the predictive value of women's alcohol habits in relation to incidence of diabetes and all-cause mortality. Special attention was paid to potential confounding factors such as age, heredity, education, socioeconomic group, physical inactivity, smoking, blood pressure, serum lipids, and, in particular, obesity. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: A longitudinal population study consisting of a representative sample of 1,462 women aged 38-60 started in Göteborg, Sweden, in 1968-1969 monitoring for diabetes and mortality over 32 years. RESULTS: Alcohol intake, expressed as intake of wine, hard liquor, or total grams of alcohol, was significantly negatively associated to 32-year diabetes incidence independent of age. However, the apparently protective effect of the alcohol variables was attenuated when BMI was included as a covariate. The inverse relationship between wine intake and diabetes did not remain after adjustment for physical activity or socioeconomic group. Beer and wine intake were significantly negatively associated to mortality. Increase of alcohol intake between the examination in 1968-1969 and 1980-1981 was significantly inversely related to the mortality between 1980-1981 and 2000-2001 and independent of all covariates. No relationship was observed between an increase in alcohol intake and diabetes incidence. However, after adjustment for age, family history, and basal alcohol consumption altogether, a significant inverse relationship was observed between increase of alcohol and diabetes incidence. CONCLUSIONS: The initially significant inverse associations observed between alcohol and diabetes as well as mortality were dependent on a number of confounding factors, of which BMI seems to be the most important.
The aim of this cross-sectional study was to analyze the relationship between chronic periodontitis and ischemic heart disease (IHD).
A cross-section of women aged 38 to 84 years were examined in 1992-93 (analysis based on n=1056). Medical and dental examinations were included in the analysis specifically with regard to IHD and periodontitis. Other well-known risk factors for IHD were used as covariates in multivariable statistical analysis.
Among the dentate women in this study (n=847), 74 had IHD and 773 did not. There was no statistically significant difference between numbers of pathological gingival pockets between these groups (58.1% had one or more pathological pockets in the IHD group compared to 57.6% in the non-IHD group). Bivariate analysis of dentate individuals showed significant associations between IHD and number of missing teeth, age, body mass index, waist/hip ratio, life satisfaction, hypertension, and levels of cholesterol and triglycerides. However, in the final multivariable logistic regression model, with the exception of age, only number of teeth (
Obesity is a risk factor for cardiovascular events. Weight loss might protect against cardiovascular events, but solid evidence is lacking.
To study the association between bariatric surgery, weight loss, and cardiovascular events.
The Swedish Obese Subjects (SOS) study is an ongoing, nonrandomized, prospective, controlled study conducted at 25 public surgical departments and 480 primary health care centers in Sweden of 2010 obese participants who underwent bariatric surgery and 2037 contemporaneously matched obese controls who received usual care. Patients were recruited between September 1, 1987, and January 31, 2001. Date of analysis was December 31, 2009, with median follow-up of 14.7 years (range, 0-20 years). Inclusion criteria were age 37 to 60 years and a body mass index of at least 34 in men and at least 38 in women. Exclusion criteria were identical in surgery and control patients. Surgery patients underwent gastric bypass (13.2%), banding (18.7%), or vertical banded gastroplasty (68.1%), and controls received usual care in the Swedish primary health care system. Physical and biochemical examinations and database cross-checks were undertaken at preplanned intervals.
The primary end point of the SOS study (total mortality) was published in 2007. Myocardial infarction and stroke were predefined secondary end points, considered separately and combined.
Bariatric surgery was associated with a reduced number of cardiovascular deaths (28 events among 2010 patients in the surgery group vs 49 events among 2037 patients in the control group; adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 0.47; 95% CI, 0.29-0.76; P = .002). The number of total first time (fatal or nonfatal) cardiovascular events (myocardial infarction or stroke, whichever came first) was lower in the surgery group (199 events among 2010 patients) than in the control group (234 events among 2037 patients; adjusted HR, 0.67; 95% CI, 0.54-0.83; P
BACKGROUND: Prenatal life exposures, potentially manifested as altered birth size, may influence the later risk of major chronic diseases through direct biologic effects on disease processes, but also by modifying adult behaviors such as physical activity that may influence later disease risk. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We investigated the association between birth weight and leisure time physical activity (LTPA) in 43,482 adolescents and adults from 13 Nordic cohorts. Random effects meta-analyses were performed on categorical estimates from cohort-, age-, sex- and birth weight specific analyses. Birth weight showed a reverse U-shaped association with later LTPA; within the range of normal weight the association was negligible but weights below and above this range were associated with a lower probability of undertaking LTPA. Compared with the reference category (3.26-3.75 kg), the birth weight categories of 1.26-1.75, 1.76-2.25, 2.26-2.75, and 4.76-5.25 kg, had odds ratios of 0.67 (95% confidence interval: 0.47, 0.94), 0.72 (0.59, 0.88), 0.89 (0.79, 0.99), and 0.65 (0.50, 0.86), respectively. The shape and strength of the birth weight-LTPA association was virtually independent of sex, age, gestational age, educational level, concurrent body mass index, and smoking. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The association between birth weight and undertaking LTPA is very weak within the normal birth weight range, but both low and high birth weights are associated with a lower probability of undertaking LTPA, which hence may be a mediator between prenatal influences and later disease risk.
This study aimed to examine the long-term effect of high blood pressure (systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, pulse pressure, and mean arterial pressure) on white matter lesions and to study changes in different blood pressure components in relation to white matter lesions. A representative population of women was examined in 1968 and re-examined in 1974, 1980, 1992, and 2000. The presence and severity of white matter lesions on computed tomography were rated by a visual rating scale in 1992 and 2000 in 539 women. Systolic and diastolic blood pressures were measured at all of the examinations. We found that presence and severity of white matter lesions in 1992/2000 were associated with higher diastolic blood pressure and mean arterial pressure at each examination but not with systolic blood pressure and pulse pressure. Odds ratios (95% CIs) for the presence of white matter lesions per 10-mm Hg increase in diastolic pressure were 1.4 (1.0 to 1.9) in 1968, 1.3 (1.0 to 1.8) in 1974, 1.4 (1.1 to 1.9) in 1980, and 1.3 (1.0 to 1.6) in 1992 after adjustment for confounders. The presence of white matter lesions was also associated with a 24-year increase in diastolic pressure (>10 mm Hg), systolic pressure (>40 mm Hg), pulse pressure (>24 mm Hg), and mean arterial pressure (>6 mm Hg; odds ratios [95% CIs]: 2.6 [1.3 to 5.1] for diastolic pressure; 2.0 [1.2 to 3.4] for systolic pressure; 1.8 [1.1 to 2.7] for pulse pressure; and 2.2 [1.4 to 3.4] for mean arterial pressure). Our findings suggest that lowering high diastolic blood pressure and preventing large increases in systolic and diastolic blood pressures may have a protective effect on white matter lesions.
Distribution of body fat is more important than the amount of fat as a prognostic factor for life expectancy. Despite that, body mass index (BMI) still holds its status as the most used indicator of obesity in clinical work.
We assessed the association of five different anthropometric measures with mortality in general and cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality in particular using Cox proportional hazards models. Predictive properties were compared by computing integrated discrimination improvement and net reclassification improvement for two different prediction models. The measures studied were BMI, waist circumference, hip circumference, waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR). The study population was a prospective cohort of 62,223 Norwegians, age 20-79, followed up for mortality from 1995-1997 to the end of 2008 (mean follow-up 12.0 years) in the Nord-Tr?ndelag Health Study (HUNT 2).
After adjusting for age, smoking and physical activity WHR and WHtR were found to be the strongest predictors of death. Hazard ratios (HRs) for CVD mortality per increase in WHR of one standard deviation were 1.23 for men and 1.27 for women. For WHtR, these HRs were 1.24 for men and 1.23 for women. WHR offered the greatest integrated discrimination improvement to the prediction models studied, followed by WHtR and waist circumference. Hip circumference was in strong inverse association with mortality when adjusting for waist circumference. In all analyses, BMI had weaker association with mortality than three of the other four measures studied.
Our study adds further knowledge to the evidence that BMI is not the most appropriate measure of obesity in everyday clinical practice. WHR can reliably be measured and is as easy to calculate as BMI and is currently better documented than WHtR. It appears reasonable to recommend WHR as the primary measure of body composition and obesity.