Can serum anti-M?llerian hormone (AMH) levels measured in female adolescents predict polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)-associated features in adolescence and early adulthood?
AMH levels associated well with PCOS-associated features (such as testosterone levels and oligoamenorrhoea) in adolescence, but was not an ideal marker to predict PCOS-associated features in early adulthood.
Several studies have reported that there is a strong correlation between antral follicle count and serum AMH levels and that women with PCOS/PCO have significantly higher serum AMH levels than women with normal ovaries. Other studies have reported an association between AMH serum levels and hyperandrogenism in adolescence, but none has prospectively assessed AMH as a risk predictor for developing features of PCOS during adulthood.
A subset of 400 girls was selected from the prospective population-based Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986 (n = 4567 at age 16 and n = 4503 at age 26). The population has been followed from 1986 to the present.
At age 16, 400 girls (100 from each testosterone quartile: 50 with oligo- or amenorrhoea and 50 with a normal menstrual cycle) were selected at random from the cohort for AMH measurement. Metabolic parameters were also assessed at age 16 in all participants. Postal questionnaires enquired about oligo- or amenorrhoea, hirsutism, contraceptive use and reproductive health at ages 16 and 26.
There was a significant correlation between AMH and testosterone at age 16 (r = 0.36, P
Cites: Ann Clin Biochem. 2011 Jul;48(Pt 4):370-321628625
We report the results of biochemical and molecular investigations on a group of patients from the Saguenay-Lac-Saint-Jean region of Quebec who have an unusual form of cytochrome oxidase deficiency and Leigh disease. This group can be distinguished from the classical presentation of cytochrome oxidase deficiency with Leigh disease, by the severity of the biochemical defect in different tissues. The activity in skin fibroblasts, amniocytes, and skeletal muscle of cytochrome oxidase is 50% of normal, while in kidney and heart it is close to normal values. Brain and liver, on the other hand, have very low activities. The defect in activity appears to result from a failure of assembly of the cytochrome oxidase complex in liver, but levels of mRNA for both mitochondrially encoded and nuclear-encoded subunits in liver and skin fibroblasts were found to be the same as those in controls. The cDNA sequence of the liver-specific cytochrome oxidase subunits VIa and VIIa were determined in samples from patient liver and skin fibroblasts and showed normal coding sequence.
Thirty-four children with lactic acidosis and Leigh encephalopathy due to cytochrome C oxidase (COX) deficiency distributed in 28 families have recently been identified in northeastern Quebec, particularly in the Saguenay-Lac-Saint-Jean (SLSJ) region. The segregation analysis was consistent with an autosomal recessive mode of inheritance. The incidence was estimated at 1/2,063 live births between 1979 and 1990, and the carrier rate was estimated at 1/23 inhabitants in SLSJ. In SLSJ, the places of origin of the COX-deficient children and their parents did not show a clustered nonuniform distribution. The genealogical reconstruction of 54 obligate carriers identified 26 ancestors common to all of them. Twenty-two were 17th-century Europeans, suggesting that the COX-deficient gene was introduced in the French-Canadian population by early settlers. These results support the hypothesis of a founder effect for COX deficiency in northeastern Quebec. Clinical findings are reported for 15 of these COX-deficient patients, age 6 mo to 11 years. Moderate developmental delay, hypotonia, ataxia, strabismus, and mild facial dysmorphism were frequent. Eleven children died in episodes of fulminant metabolic acidosis. The patients had elevated blood and cerebrospinal fluid lactate levels, decreased blood bicarbonate levels, and normal blood pH. Leigh disease and microvesicular steatosis of the liver were present in all affected patients for whom postmortem examination was performed. This biochemically uniform group of patients showed a wide range of clinical severity.
Previous studies have suggested that metformin is clinically useful in the treatment of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the improvement of ovarian function achieved by metformin therapy is associated with changes in leptin concentrations. Twenty-six obese women with PCOS were treated with 500 mg metformin, x 3 daily, for 2 months; and 12 women continued the therapy for 4-6 months. A significant decrease in the serum leptin level was observed after 2 months of treatment in the whole study group (29.2 +/- 12.7 ng/mL vs. 25.7 +/- 10.9 ng/mL, P = 0.03). In the 12 women treated for 4-6 months, the mean serum leptin concentration decreased after 2 months (38.6 +/- 9.3 ng/mL vs. 30.2 +/- 8.1 ng/mL; P = 0.004) but slightly increased after 4-6 months of treatment (33.4 +/- 15.7 ng/mL; not significant). These results indicate that insulin sensitizing therapy with metformin decreases the leptin concentrations in obese PCOS women.
OBJECTIVE: Women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) exhibit risk factors for cardiovascular diseases such as abdominal obesity, insulin resistance and dyslipidemia. Insulin sensitizers, especially metformin, have been shown to improve these metabolic disturbances, but there are only a few studies on their effects on serum lipids in polycystic ovary syndrome. METHODS: Thirty-five women with PCOS (18 obese and 17 non-obese) were randomized to 6-month treatments with metformin or ethinyl estradiol-cyproterone acetate oral contraceptive pills. RESULTS: In the whole-study population (non-obese and obese women) serum levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol increased from 1.4+/-0.2 to 1.6+/-0.1 mmol/l (means +/-S.E. throughout) at 3 and 6 months (P
Metformin, a biguanide antihyperglycemic drug, has been shown to improve ovarian function and glucose metabolism in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), but results concerning its effects on insulin sensitivity are controversial. Oral contraceptive pills are commonly used in the treatment of PCOS; but, like metformin, their influence on insulin sensitivity is not well known. We randomized 32 obese (body mass index > 27 kg/m2) women with PCOS, either to metformin (500 mg x 2 daily for 3 months, then 1,000 mg x 2 daily for 3 months) or to ethinyl estradiol (35 microg)-cyproterone acetate (2 mg) oral contraceptive pills (Diane Nova) for 6 months. Metformin significantly decreased the waist-to-hip ratio, serum testosterone, fasting free fatty acid, and insulin concentrations and improved oxidative glucose utilization and menstrual cyclicity, with slight (but nonsignificant) improvements in insulin hepatic extraction and insulin sensitivity. Diane Nova significantly decreased serum testosterone and increased serum sex hormone-binding globulin concentrations and glucose area under the curve during oral glucose tolerance test. It is concluded that metformin, probably by way of its effect on adipose tissue, leads to reduction of hyperinsulinemia and concomitant improvement in the menstrual pattern; and therefore, it offers a useful alternative treatment for obese, anovulatory women with PCOS. Despite slight worsening of glucose tolerance, Diane Nova is an efficient treatment for women with hyperandrogenism and hirsutism.
BACKGROUND: The objective of the study was to assess the therapeutic effects of rosiglitazone in overweight women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). METHODS: A double-blind, placebo-controlled study was conducted on 30 (BMI > 25 kg/m(2), mean age 29.1 +/- 1.2 years) overweight women with PCOS treated with rosiglitazone or placebo for 4 months. Waist-to-hip ratios (WHRs), serum concentrations of sex hormones and binding proteins, blood glucose, serum insulin and serum C-peptide during a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), first-phase insulin secretion as determined by an intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT), M values (expressing insulin sensitivity using a eug-lycaemic clamp) and calorimetric data were assessed at 0 and 4 months of treatment. RESULTS: Rosiglitazone improved menstrual cyclicity, increased serum sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) levels and decreased serum levels of androstenedione, 17-hydroxyprogesterone (17-OHP), dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEA-S). Glucose tolerance [expressed as AUCglucose during the OGTT] improved (P = 0.002) and peripheral insulin response (expressed as AUCinsulin decreased (P = 0.004) in the rosiglitazone group (ROSI group). M value improved in the ROSI group from 33.4 +/- 3.27 to 40.0 +/- 5.51 micromol/kg min (P = 0.04). CONCLUSION: Rosiglitazone, by improving menstrual cyclicity, hyperandrogenism, insulin resistance and hyperinsulinaemia, represents an alternative treatment for overweight anovulatory women with PCOS and no pregnancy desire.
To study the contributions of body mass, body fat distribution and family history of type 2 diabetes mellitus to hyperinsulinaemia, insulin secretion and resistance in polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), 17 lean (LC) and 17 obese (OC) healthy control subjects, and 15 lean (LPCOS) and 28 obese (OPCOS) women with PCOS were investigated. Waist:hip ratio (WHR), serum concentrations of sex steroids, glucose and insulin during a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), and insulin and C-peptide early phase secretion, and insulin sensitivity index using a euglycaemic hyperinsulinaemic clamp were assessed. The PCOS subjects had a higher mean WHR than the controls. A trend towards hyperinsulinaemia and impairment of insulin sensitivity (including the rates of both glucose oxidation and non-oxidation) was observed in LPCOS subjects, but only in OPCOS subjects were these changes significant. Early phase insulin secretion but not the early phase C-peptide secretion was increased in PCOS subjects compared to controls, suggesting that peripheral hyperinsulinaemia in PCOS women was mainly due to the observed lowered hepatic insulin extraction and insulin resistance in skeletal muscle. Moreover, the presence of a family history of type 2 diabetes did not affect early phase insulin or C-peptide secretion in the PCOS group. These results confirm and strengthen earlier contentions, that insulin resistance is a characteristic defect in PCOS and is worsened particularly by abdominal obesity.