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Environmental health collaboration: United States and Russia.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature183668
Source
Int J Hyg Environ Health. 2003 Aug;206(4-5):333-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-2003
Author
C H Rubin
R L Jones
B. Revich
S L Avaliani
E. Gurvich
Author Affiliation
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Environmental Health, Division of Environmental Hazards and Health Effects, Health Studies Branch, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA. CRubin@cdc.gov
Source
Int J Hyg Environ Health. 2003 Aug;206(4-5):333-8
Date
Aug-2003
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (U.S.)
Child, Preschool
Environmental Exposure - analysis
Environmental health
Environmental Pollutants - poisoning
Humans
Infant
International Cooperation
Lead Poisoning - blood
Medical Laboratory Science - instrumentation - methods
Pesticides - poisoning
Risk Assessment - methods
Russia
United States
Abstract
Developed nations share similar challenges to human health from commercial and agricultural chemicals that are released into the environment. Although Russia and the United States are historically distinct and unique, both countries are geographically large and economically dependent on emission-producing surface transportation. This paper describes U.S.-Russian collaborative activities that grew from a 1995 conference in Moscow that brought together environmental health investigators from both countries to discuss common concerns about the human health impact of environmental pollutants. Lead, pesticides, volatile organic compounds, and mercury were identified as contaminants of greatest concern. Collaborative studies were initiated that included collecting blood and hair samples and splitting samples for analyses in both countries, and introducing and sharing new portable blood and environmental sample analyses instruments. The findings demonstrated that hair analysis was not a good predictor of BLL and that Russian children in the first city sampled had a mean BLL of 7.7 microg/dl. Although higher than the U.S. mean, this level was below the 10.0 microg/dl CDC level of concern. This manuscript summarizes additional study results and describes their impacts on Russian policy. On-going collaborative environmental investigations are described.
PubMed ID
12971688 View in PubMed
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Hair and blood as substrates for screening children for lead poisoning.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature199772
Source
Arch Environ Health. 1999 Nov-Dec;54(6):436-40
Publication Type
Article
Author
E. Esteban
C H Rubin
R L Jones
G. Noonan
Author Affiliation
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Environmental Health, Atlanta, Georgia 30341-3724, USA.
Source
Arch Environ Health. 1999 Nov-Dec;54(6):436-40
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Child
Child, Preschool
Female
Hair - chemistry
Humans
Lead - analysis - blood
Lead Poisoning - diagnosis - epidemiology
Linear Models
Male
Mass Screening - methods
Predictive value of tests
Russia - epidemiology
Sensitivity and specificity
Abstract
In Russia, hair, rather than blood, is usually used as a substrate for screening children for lead poisoning. We attempted to gauge the accuracy of this method by comparing these two methods. The evaluation was done in Saratov, Russia. We collected hair and blood samples from 189 children who attended 11 kindergartens. Their mean blood lead concentration was 9.8 microg/dl (range = 3.1-35.7 microg/dl), and their mean hair lead concentration was 7.2 microg/g (range = 1.0-7.2 microg/g [i.e., 1.0 being the lowest detectable limit]). Hair lead concentration as a screening method had 57% sensitivity and resulted in 18% of the children being classified as false-negatives. We conclude, therefore, that measuring hair lead concentration is not an adequate method with which to screen children for lead poisoning.
PubMed ID
10634234 View in PubMed
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Nutritional survey of an elderly Russian population. CARE International Working Group.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature218729
Source
Am J Prev Med. 1994 Mar-Apr;10(2):71-6
Publication Type
Article
Author
C H Rubin
B M Posner
D E Peterson
Author Affiliation
Division of Field Epidemiology, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30341-3724.
Source
Am J Prev Med. 1994 Mar-Apr;10(2):71-6
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Body mass index
Demography
Feasibility Studies
Female
Health status
Humans
Male
Moscow
Nutrition Assessment
Nutrition Surveys
Pensions
Questionnaires
Random Allocation
Risk
Russia
Socioeconomic Factors
Abstract
During March and April 1992, CARE International, with epidemiological support from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, conducted household surveys of pensioners 70 years of age or older in two Russian cities. The objectives of these studies were to assess survey feasibility, to report baseline nutritional data, and to determine if demographic identifiers on computerized government listings could be used to target nutritional aid toward the most needy among elderly people. Pensioners in each city were administered questionnaires regarding food consumption and financial and health status. We calculated scores for body mass index (BMI) and Nutritional Screening Initiative (NSI) Checklist (a tool for assessing the nutritional risk status of U.S. elderly). Median pension income was 410 roubles (about $4.00) per month. Forty-five percent of the participants had
PubMed ID
8037934 View in PubMed
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