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Brokering for the primary healthcare needs of recent immigrant families in Atlantic, Canada.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature122697
Source
Prim Health Care Res Dev. 2013 Jan;14(1):63-79
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-2013
Author
Sandra Isaacs
Ruta Valaitis
K Bruce Newbold
Margaret Black
Jan Sargeant
Author Affiliation
School of Nursing, McMaster University, Hamilton, Canada. isaacssm@mcmaster.ca
Source
Prim Health Care Res Dev. 2013 Jan;14(1):63-79
Date
Jan-2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Canada
Community Networks
Emigrants and Immigrants
Family
Health Services Accessibility - organization & administration
Health services needs and demand
Humans
Organizational Case Studies
Primary Health Care - organization & administration
Qualitative Research
Social Support
Abstract
This case study describes how broker organizations supported a network of community-based services to work together to address the primary healthcare needs of recent immigrant families with young children.
In parts of Canada with low levels of immigration compared with large urban centres, service providers may need to collaborate more closely with one another so that cultural competencies and resources are shared. Providers within Atlantic Canada, with its relatively small immigrant population, were faced with such a challenge.
Social network analysis and qualitative inquiry were the methods used within this case study. Twenty-seven organizations and four proxy organizations representing other organization types were identified as part of the network serving a geographically bounded neighbourhood within a mid-sized urban centre in Atlantic Canada in 2009. Twenty-one of the 27 organizations participated in the network survey and 14 key informants from the service community were interviewed. Findings Broker organizations were identified as pivotal for ensuring connections among network members, for supporting immigrant family access to services through their involvement with multiple providers, and for developing cultural competence capacities in the system overall. Network cohesiveness differed depending on the type of need being addressed, as did the organizations playing the role of broker. Service providers were able to extend their reach through the co-location of services in local centres and schools attended by immigrant families and their children. The study demonstrates the value of ties across service sectors facilitated by broker organizations to ensure the delivery of comprehensive services to young immigrant families challenged by an unfamiliar system of care.
PubMed ID
22784873 View in PubMed
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Competence trust among providers as fundamental to a culturally competent primary healthcare system for immigrant families.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature122637
Source
Prim Health Care Res Dev. 2013 Jan;14(1):80-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-2013
Author
Sandra Isaacs
Ruta Valaitis
K Bruce Newbold
Margaret Black
Jan Sargeant
Author Affiliation
Assistant Clinical Professor, School of Nursing, McMaster University, Hamilton, Canada. isaacssm@mcmaster.ca
Source
Prim Health Care Res Dev. 2013 Jan;14(1):80-9
Date
Jan-2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Canada
Community Networks
Cultural Competency
Emigrants and Immigrants
Health Services Accessibility
Humans
National Health Programs
Primary Health Care
Qualitative Research
Trust
Abstract
To explore how an organization's trust in the cultural competency of other service providers (competence trust) can influence the effectiveness of a services network in meeting the needs of recent immigrant families.
Primary health care for recent immigrants arriving in Canada is delivered through a network of community-based services. To ensure the functioning of the network and its ability to facilitate access to needed services for new arrivals, network members need to be able to work together collaboratively. A case study involving services for an urban community in Atlantic Canada was undertaken in 2009 to explore how service organizations worked together to address the needs of recent immigrant families with young children. This paper focuses on provider perceptions of cultural competency among local service organizations and how this influenced trust and desire to work together for the benefit of families.
The case study utilized both social network analysis and qualitative inquiry methodology. Twenty-one of 27 selected organizations responded to the online social network survey, and 14 key informant interviews were conducted. Social network measures and network mapping were used to demonstrate trusting relationships and associated interactions, while interview data were used to explain the relationships observed.
Perceived cultural competency affected the degree of trust and collaboration within the services network when addressing the needs of recent immigrant families. Competence trust toward other providers increased the desire and commitment to work together, while lack of competence trust created avoidance. Non-government organizations were identified among the most culturally competent. The perceived positive and negative experiences of families with different providers influenced the level of trust among network members. The development of systemic cultural competences within a services network is needed in order to improve collaborations and access to services for immigrant families.
PubMed ID
22794189 View in PubMed
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Defining socially-based spatial boundaries in the region of Peel, Ontario, Canada.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature134317
Source
Int J Health Geogr. 2011;10:38
Publication Type
Article
Date
2011
Author
Adam Drackley
K Bruce Newbold
Christian Taylor
Author Affiliation
School of Geography & Earth Sciences, McMaster University, West, Hamilton ON L8S 4K1, Canada.
Source
Int J Health Geogr. 2011;10:38
Date
2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Demography - economics
Humans
Ontario - epidemiology
Principal Component Analysis
Residence Characteristics
Social Environment
Socioeconomic Factors
Abstract
The purpose of the project was to delineate a series of contiguous neighbourhood-based "Data Zones" within the Region of Peel (Ontario) for the purpose of health data analysis and dissemination. Zones were to be built on Census Tracts (N = 205) and obey a series of requirements defined by the Region of Peel. This paper explores a method that combines statistical analysis with ground-truthing, consultation, and the use of a decision tree.
Census Tract data for Peel were derived from the 2006 Canadian Census Master file.
Following correlation analysis to reduce the data set, Principal Component Analysis was applied to the data set to reduce the complexity and derive an index. The Getis-Ord Gi*statistic was then applied to look for statistically significant clusters of like Census Tracts. A detailed decision tree for the amalgamation of remaining zones and ground-truthing with Peel staff verified the resulting zones.
A total of 15 Data Zones that are similar with respect to socioeconomic and sociodemographic attributes and that met criteria defined by Peel were derived for the region.
The approach used in this analysis, which was bolstered by a series of checks and balances throughout the process, gives statistical validity to the defined zones and resulted in a robust series of Data Zones for use by Peel Public Health. We conclude by offering insight into alternative uses of the methodology, and limitations.
Notes
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PubMed ID
21600012 View in PubMed
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Discrimination and the health of immigrants and refugees: exploring Canada's evidence base and directions for future research in newcomer receiving countries.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature123145
Source
J Immigr Minor Health. 2013 Feb;15(1):141-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-2013
Author
Sara Edge
Bruce Newbold
Author Affiliation
School of Geography and Earth Sciences, McMaster Institute of Environment and Health, McMaster University, 1280 Main Street West, GSB #206, Hamilton, ON L8S 4K1, Canada. edges@mcmaster.ca
Source
J Immigr Minor Health. 2013 Feb;15(1):141-8
Date
Feb-2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Canada - epidemiology
Emigrants and Immigrants - statistics & numerical data
Female
Health Services Research
Health status
Healthcare Disparities - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Male
Mental Health - statistics & numerical data
Prejudice - statistics & numerical data
Refugees - statistics & numerical data
Abstract
Research and practice increasingly suggests discrimination compromises health. Yet the unique experiences and effects facing immigrant and refugee populations remain poorly understood in Canada and abroad. We review current knowledge on discrimination against newcomers in Canada, emphasizing impacts upon health status and service access to identify gaps and research needs. Existing knowledge centers around experiences within health-care settings, differences in perception and coping, mental health impacts, and debates about "non-discriminatory" health-care. There is need for comparative analyses within and across ethno-cultural groups and newcomer classes to better understand factors shaping how discrimination and its health effects are differentially experienced. Women receive greater attention in the literature given their compounded vulnerability. While this must continue, little is known about the experiences of youth and men. Governance and policy discourse analyses would elucidate how norms, institutions and practices shape discriminatory attitudes and responses. Finally, "non-discriminatory health-care" interventions require critical evaluation to determine their effectiveness.
PubMed ID
22729289 View in PubMed
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Exploring the relationship between food access and foodborne illness by using spatial analysis.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature107606
Source
J Food Prot. 2013 Sep;76(9):1615-20
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-2013
Author
Bruce Newbold
Susannah Watson
Kevin Mackay
Sandy Isaacs
Author Affiliation
School of Geography and Earth Sciences, McMaster University, 1280 Main Street W, Hamilton, Ontario L8S 4L8, Canada. newbold@mcmaster.ca
Source
J Food Prot. 2013 Sep;76(9):1615-20
Date
Sep-2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Commerce - statistics & numerical data
Demography
Disease Outbreaks - statistics & numerical data
Food Supply - standards - statistics & numerical data
Foodborne Diseases - epidemiology
Geographic Information Systems
Humans
Ontario - epidemiology
Residence Characteristics
Spatial Analysis
Abstract
There is some evidence that neighborhood deprivation increases residents' risk of foodborne illnesses. Because urban areas with the least available access to adequate amounts of nutritious or affordable food options (or "food deserts") also tend to be the most deprived areas within a city, it is hypothesized that food access and foodborne illness risk are linked. However, the complexity of tracking numbers and sources of gastrointestinal (GI) illnesses often leads researchers to speculate about reasons for disproportionate rates of pathogen outbreaks among demographic groups. This study explores the suitability of existing data to examine associations between food deserts and the spatial distribution of GI illnesses in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. A spatial analysis by using GIS software methodology was used to identify and map food retail outlets and accessibility, as well as GI illness outbreaks and sales of antidiarrhea, antinausea, and rehydration products (used as a proxy for GI cases) within the city, based on available data. Statistical analysis of the maps shows no statistical relationship between location, access to food outlets, and rates of GI illness. The analysis points to shortfalls and gaps in the existing data, which leaves us unable to draw conclusions either supporting or refuting our hypothesis. This article includes recommendations to improve the current system of illness reporting and to continue to refine the definition and process of mapping food access issues. A more comprehensive set of data would enable municipalities to more easily identify groups most at risk, depending on exposures and the type of pathogen, and reduce the occurrence of foodborne disease.
PubMed ID
23992507 View in PubMed
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Forecasting Ontario's blood supply and demand.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature132507
Source
Transfusion. 2012 Feb;52(2):366-74
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-2012
Author
Adam Drackley
K Bruce Newbold
Antonio Paez
Nancy Heddle
Author Affiliation
School of Geography & Earth Sciences, Department of Medicine, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada.
Source
Transfusion. 2012 Feb;52(2):366-74
Date
Feb-2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Age Distribution
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Algorithms
Blood Banks - supply & distribution - trends
Blood Donors - supply & distribution
Blood Specimen Collection - trends
Blood Transfusion - trends
Female
Forecasting - methods
Health Services Needs and Demand - trends
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Ontario - epidemiology
Population Growth
Sex Factors
Young Adult
Abstract
Given an aging population that requires increased medical care, an increasing number of deferrals from the donor pool, and a growing immigrant population that typically has lower donation rates, the purpose of this article is to forecast Ontario's blood supply and demand.
We calculate age- and sex-specific donation and demand rates for blood supply based on 2008 data and project demand between 2008 and 2036 based on these rates and using population data from the Ontario Ministry of Finance.
Results indicate that blood demand will outpace supply as early as 2012. For instance, while the total number of donations made by older cohorts is expected to increase in the coming years, the number of red blood cell (RBC) transfusions in the 70+ age group is forecasted grow from approximately 53% of all RBC transfusions in 2008 (209,515) in 2008 to 68% (546,996) by 2036. A series of alternate scenarios, including projections based on a 2% increase in supply per year and increased use of apheresis technology, delays supply shortfalls, but does not eliminate them without active management and/or multiple methods to increase supply and decrease demand.
Predictions show that demand for blood products will outpace supply in the near future given current age- and sex-specific supply and demand rates. However, we note that the careful management of the blood supply by Canadian Blood Services, along with new medical techniques and the recruitment of new donors to the system, will remove future concerns.
PubMed ID
21810099 View in PubMed
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Geographical variations in the correlates of blood donor turnout rates: an investigation of Canadian metropolitan areas.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature147998
Source
Int J Health Geogr. 2009;8:56
Publication Type
Article
Date
2009
Author
P J Saberton
Antonio Paez
K Bruce Newbold
Nancy M Heddle
Author Affiliation
School of Geography and Earth Sciences, McMaster University, Hamilton Ontario, Canada. paezha@mcmaster.ca
Source
Int J Health Geogr. 2009;8:56
Date
2009
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Age Distribution
Aged
Blood Donors - statistics & numerical data
Canada - epidemiology
Choice Behavior
Geographic Information Systems
Humans
Middle Aged
Models, Statistical
Regression Analysis
Socioeconomic Factors
Urban Health Services - statistics & numerical data
Urban Population - statistics & numerical data
Young Adult
Abstract
Like other countries, Canada's population is aging, and the implications of this demographic change need to be better understood from the perspective of blood supply. Analysis of donor data will help to identify systematic patterns of donation and its correlates.
Geo-coded blood donor and donor clinic data are provided by Canadian Blood Services. Blood donor data is provided for the fiscal year 2006-2007 indicating the total number of donors for each Canadian postal code, excluding the province of Québec. Potential correlates of blood donation are selected based on social and economic characteristics, as well as descriptors of city size and geographical location in the urban hierarchy measures of accessibility, and capacity of donor clinics.
Data is aggregated to n = 3,746 census tracts in 40 Census Metropolitan Areas (CMA) across the country. The number of donors per population in a census tract is regressed against the set of potential donation correlates. Autocorrelation is tested for and results adjusted to provide parsimonious models.
A number of factors are found to influence donation across the country, including the proportion of younger residents, English ability, proportion of people with immigrant status, higher education, and a population-based measure of accessibility.
While a number of correlates of blood donation are observed across Canada, important contextual effects across metropolitan areas are highlighted. The paper concludes by looking at policy options that are aimed toward further understanding donor behaviour.
Notes
Cites: Transfusion. 1999 Oct;39(10):1128-3510532608
Cites: Transfus Med. 2000 Mar;10(1):5-1110760198
Cites: Rev Panam Salud Publica. 2003 Feb-Mar;13(2-3):144-812744790
Cites: Transfus Med. 2004 Feb;14(1):9-1215043587
Cites: Transfusion. 1982 Mar-Apr;22(2):138-427071916
Cites: Health Place. 2005 Jun;11(2):131-4615629681
Cites: Transfusion. 2005 Feb;45(2):149-6115660822
Cites: Transfusion. 2007 Oct;47(10):1862-7017880613
PubMed ID
19825154 View in PubMed
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Health care providers' perspectives on the provision of prenatal care to immigrants.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature101801
Source
Cult Health Sex. 2011 May;13(5):561-74
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-2011
Author
Carita Ng
K Bruce Newbold
Author Affiliation
School of Geography and Earth Sciences and McMaster Institute of Environment and Health, McMaster University, Ontario, Canada.
Source
Cult Health Sex. 2011 May;13(5):561-74
Date
May-2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Attitude of Health Personnel
Awareness
Cultural Competency
Culture
Emigrants and Immigrants - psychology
Female
Health Services Accessibility
Health services needs and demand
Health status
Humans
Language
Ontario
Patient satisfaction
Pregnancy
Prenatal Care - psychology
Sweden
Women's health
Abstract
In addition to facing barriers to health care and experiencing poor health status, immigrants to Canada and Sweden tend to have more negative birth outcomes than the native-born population, including low birth weight and perinatal mortality rates. Explored through interviews with health care professionals, including midwives, nurse practitioners, social workers and obstetrician gynaecologists, this paper evaluates their experiences in providing prenatal care to immigrants in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. Results reveal the complexity of delivering care to immigrants, particularly with respect to expectations surrounding language, culture and type and professionalism of care. The paper concludes by discussing future research options and implications for the delivery of prenatal care to this population.
PubMed ID
21390947 View in PubMed
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Health care use and the Canadian immigrant population.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature148410
Source
Int J Health Serv. 2009;39(3):545-65
Publication Type
Article
Date
2009
Author
K Bruce Newbold
Author Affiliation
McMaster Institute of Environment and Health, School of Geography and Earth Sciences, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada. newbold@mcmaster.ca
Source
Int J Health Serv. 2009;39(3):545-65
Date
2009
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Canada
Emigrants and Immigrants - statistics & numerical data
Female
Health Behavior
Health Services - utilization
Health Status Disparities
Healthcare Disparities - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Life Style
Male
Middle Aged
Socioeconomic Factors
Sociology, Medical
Abstract
Set within the "determinants of health" framework and drawing on Statistics Canada's longitudinal National Population Health Survey, this article explores health care utilization by Canada's immigrant population. Given the observed "healthy immigrant effect", whereby the health status of immigrants at the time of arrival is high but subsequently declines and converges toward that of the native-born population, does the incidence of use of health care facilities reflect greater need for care? Similarly, does the use of health care facilities by the native- and the foreign-born differ, and if so, are these differences explained primarily by socioeconomic, sociodemographic, or lifestyle factors, which may point to problems in the Canadian health care system? This study identifies trends in the incidence of physician and hospital use, the factors that contribute to health care use, and differences in health care use between the native- and foreign-born.
PubMed ID
19771955 View in PubMed
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Health status and Canada's immigrant population.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature183614
Source
Soc Sci Med. 2003 Nov;57(10):1981-95
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-2003
Author
K Bruce Newbold
Jeff Danforth
Author Affiliation
School of Geography and Geology, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ont., Canada L8S 4K1. newbold@mcmaster.ca
Source
Soc Sci Med. 2003 Nov;57(10):1981-95
Date
Nov-2003
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Arthritis - ethnology
Canada - epidemiology
Child
Chronic Disease - epidemiology
Diabetes Mellitus - ethnology
Emigration and Immigration - classification - statistics & numerical data
Female
Health status
Health Surveys
Heart Diseases - ethnology
Humans
Hypertension - ethnology
Male
Middle Aged
Regression Analysis
Residence Characteristics - statistics & numerical data
Socioeconomic Factors
Time Factors
Abstract
Given the framework of the 1984 Canada Health Act, the health status of immigrants should be similar to average levels within whole of Canada. Yet, assuming equality of health status between immigrant and non-immigrants, or between immigrant groups is likely an unrealistic and simplistic assumption, given unseen barriers affecting accessibility, the restructuring of the Canadian health care system, and problems with the provision of health care resources to the immigrant population. Using the National Population Health Survey, this paper focuses upon the health status of the immigrant population relative to that of non-immigrants within Canada, with reference to diagnosed conditions, self-assessed health, and the Health Utilities Index Mark 3. Findings indicate that, with the exception of the most recent arrivals, immigrants experience worse health status across most dimensions relative to non-immigrants. Multivariate analysis reveals that age, income adequacy, gender, and home ownership are dimensions upon which health status differs between the two groups.
PubMed ID
14499520 View in PubMed
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20 records – page 1 of 2.