High red and processed meat intakes are associated with increased colorectal cancer (CRC) risk. The effect of eliminating or reducing red and processed meat consumption on CRC burden was not previously quantified in Denmark. The aim of this study was to calculate the possible effects of reductions in red and processed meat consumption on future CRC incidence in the Danish adult population.
Under six scenarios of prevalence exposure (meat consumption) the number of CRC cases in Denmark for a 30-year period (2016-2045) was estimated and compared to the projected number of CRCs if the prevalence of meat consumption remains constant. Data was obtained from the NORDCAN register, Statistics Denmark, and from the Danish dietary survey data (DANSDA). Analyses were conducted using the Prevent model.
During the 30-year period, a total of 36,767 (19.8%) CRC cases out of 185,937 expected could be avoided in Denmark by eliminating the consumption of both red and processed meat. For the same period, a modest reduction in both red and processed meat consumption could lead to the prevention of 16,964 (9.1%) CRC cases. The greatest reductions were seen among men, and the highest impact was estimated for the elimination or reduction of processed meat consumption.
Decreased red and processed meat consumption could reduce the burden of CRC markedly in Denmark. These results can assist public health planners and help highlight the important role of a modest but realistic reduction in meat consumption in the prevention of CRC.
Exposure to ultraviolet radiation is the main risk factor for skin cancer. Denmark has one of the highest incidences of skin cancer in the world. In 2007, a long-term sun safety campaign was launched in Denmark. We have evaluated the effects on prevalence of sunburn and modeled the effects on future melanoma incidence.Sunburn was evaluated by annual cross-sectional surveys representative for the Danish population on age, gender, and region. During 2007-2015, survey data were collected for 33.315 Danes. Cutaneous Melanoma incidences were modeled in the Prevent program, using population projections, historic incidence, sunburn exposure, and relative risk of sunburn on melanoma.The prevalence of sunburn in Denmark was reduced with 1% annually during 2007 to 2015. The campaign is estimated to have reduced the number of skin cancer cases with 664 annually in 2040 and 14.326 totally during 2007 to 2040. If the campaign was terminated in 2015 and sunburn rates return to precampaign level there would be no annual reduction in 2040 while in total the reduction would be 4.024 cases for 2007 to 2040. A continuous campaign until 2040 would yield annual reductions of 2.121 cases by 2040 and a total of 29.729 cases for the entire period.We have showed the value of prevention and the value of long-term planning in prevention campaigning. Sunburn use was reduced significantly during 2007-2015 and further reductions are possible. Consequently, we predict significant fewer skin cancer cases as anticipated.
In 2007, a national skin cancer prevention campaign was launched to reduce the UV exposure of the Danish population. To improve campaign evaluation a questionnaire validation using UV-dosimeters was initiated.
To show the feasibility of dosimeters for national representative studies and of smartphones as a data collection tool.
Participants were sent a dosimeter which they wore for 7 days, received a short diary questionnaire by text message each day and subsequently a longer questionnaire. Correlation between responses from questionnaire, smartphone diaries and dosimeters were examined.
This study shows a 99.5% return rate (n = 205) of the dosimeters by ordinary mail and high response-rates for a smartphone questionnaire dairy. Correlation coefficients for outdoor-time reported through smartphones and dosimeters as average by week 0.62 (0.39-0.77), P
The objective of this study was to develop new scales measuring knowledge and attitude about UVR and sun related behavior, and to examine their association to sun related behavior objectively measured by personal dosimetry. During May-August 2013, 664 Danes wore a personal electronic UV-dosimeter for one week that measured their UVR exposure. Afterwards, they answered a questionnaire on sun-related items. We applied descriptive analysis, linear and logistic regression analysis to evaluate the associations between the questionnaire scales and objective UVR measures. Perceiving protection as routine and important were positively correlated with protective behavior. Knowledge deficit of UV and risk of melanoma, perceived benefits and importance of protection behavior was also correlated with use of protection. 'Knowledge deficit of UV and risk of melanoma and Perceived barrier towards sun avoidance between 12 and 15' were both associated with increased risk of sunburn. Attitude towards tan was associated to both outdoor time and exposure as well as use of protection, but not to sunburn. The results regarding Knowledge deficit of UV and risk of melanoma associated to UVR exposure and Perceived barrier towards sun avoidance between 12 and 15 emphasize the importance of awareness of melanoma risk and the priority of the skin cancer prevention advice. Shifting activities to outside the suns peak-hours could be an approach for structural and campaign preventive measures. Knowledge of items predicting exposure to UVR, use of protection and sunburn are important for planning of preventive interventions and melanoma research.
Cites: Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2010 Sep;19(9):2199-21020643826
'Neighbour smoke' is transfer of secondhand smoke between apartments including shared areas, such as hallways, community rooms and stairwells in multiunit dwellings and is an emerging issue for public health and health equity.
To describe the prevalence of exposure to neighbour smoke in Denmark.
A population-based sample of 5049 respondents (2183 in multiunit dwellings) living in Denmark aged =15 years completed a questionnaire in 2010 on tobacco-related behaviour and exposure to secondhand smoke. The authors examined the relations between exposure to neighbour smoke, own smoking, smoking inside the home, type of residence and demographic factors with descriptive statistics and logistic regression analysis.
In this sample, 22% of those living in multiunit dwellings reported exposure to neighbour smoke. Of respondents living in apartments, 41% preferred to live in a building in which smoking is banned. Smoke-free buildings were preferred by 58% of persons exposed to neighbour smoke compared with 37% of persons not exposed. Of the smokers (daily and occasional), 14% preferred to live in a smoke-free building; 31% never smoked indoors in their own home.
The only way to avoid absorbing tobacco smoke from neighbours is to live in a smoke-free multiunit dwelling. There is great demand for such dwellings, especially by young people, people with children and people exposed to neighbour smoke, as well as by people who smoke.
BACKGROUND: In Denmark, the incidence of melanoma has been increasing since the 1960s. Intermittent exposure to ultraviolet radiation and a history of sunburn and sunbed use are known risk factors. We describe the association between use of protective measures, sun-related behaviour and experience of sunburn in the Danish population three months after the start of the campaign. METHOD: A population-based sample of 3,499 persons aged 15-59 years completed a questionnaire that included items on exposure to ultraviolet radiation. We examined the relations between sunburn and sun-related behaviour by logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: Within the previous 12 months, 35% of the study population had experienced sunburn. Sunburn became less frequent with age (odds ratio (OR) 4.44; 15-19 vs. 50-59) and skin type (OR 2.57; I vs. III). Sunburn was negatively associated with shade and clothing and positively with use of sunscreens. We found no significant difference in sunscreen use between intentional tanners who experienced sunburn and those who did not. A larger fraction of unintentional tanners with sunburn than those who were not sunburnt had used sunscreen. Sunscreen was used to prolong the time spent in the sun by 66% of sunburnt people; however, we found no association between duration of sun exposure and sunscreen use. CONCLUSIONS: Future campaigns to reduce the prevalence of sunburn in the Danish population must especially target young persons and intentional tanning, and they should emphasize that sunscreen cannot be used to extend the time spent in the sun and that shade and clothing provide the best protection against sunburn.
Sunbed use is associated with an increased risk for skin cancer and is particularly dangerous for younger persons. The objective of this study was to assess how demographic factors, health-related behaviours and appearance-related factors are associated with sunbed use. Cross-sectional data from the Danish National Youth Study collected by the National Institute of Public Health during 2014 was used. A total of 64,382 students aged 15-25years were included in the present study. Multilevel logistic regression analyses were used to determine associations. Sunbed use during the past 12months was reported by 22% of students, with a higher proportion among females (29%) than males (12%). Factors associated with sunbed use were older age, studying at a vocational college or a higher preparatory examination school compared to upper secondary school, and lower parental education. Furthermore, being a smoker, been binge-drinking, longer duration of exercise and been dieting were also associated with sunbed use. For females, poor dietary habits were also associated with sunbed use. Feeling overweight was associated with lower odds for sunbed use for males, but with higher odds for females. Lower body satisfaction was associated with higher odds of sunbed use, except for overweight males. Students who were underweight had lower odds for sunbed use, than normal weight students. Conclusively, we found evidence of associations between demographic factors, health-related behaviours and appearance-related factors and sunbed use. Understanding these relations could help to identify high-risk groups and guide preventive strategies for sunbed use and skin cancer prevention.
Little is known on how vitamin D status is affected by adherence to UVB-limiting sun exposure guidelines. Our aim was to investigate the relationship between adherence to the Danish sun exposure guidelines and vitamin D status. In total, 3194 Danes (2625 adults, 569 children) were recruited among the general population, and more than 92% had blood samples taken both autumn and spring. Using linear regression, we associated serum vitamin D concentrations to questionnaire responses on: seeking shade, wearing a sunhat, wearing protective clothing or using sunscreen. The odds ratio (OR) of either low (
Cites: Int J Cancer. 2004 Jan 1;108(1):104-814618623
Denmark has experienced an increase in melanoma incidence since the 1960s. Exposure to ultraviolet radiation is the main preventable cause of this cancer. We examined current travel to, and sun-related behaviour of Danes at, sunny destinations in relation to their risk for sunburn.
A population-based sample of 11,158 respondents aged 15-59 years completed three questionnaires in 2007-2009 that included items on exposure to ultraviolet radiation. Using logistic regression analysis we examined the relations between sunny vacations, sun-related behaviour, demographic factors and risk for sunburn.
During 2007-2009, 44.8-45.8% of the respondents travelled to a sunny destination at least once a year; 24% became sunburnt, and 69% tanned intentionally. The odds ratio for sunburn in general for people who went on a sunny vacation as compared with those who did not was 1.6 (1.5-1.7). Sunscreen use (1.9; 1.4-2.6) and intentional tanning (3.4; 2.8-4.1) were positively associated with sunburn on vacation.
Taking a vacation in a sunny place is a risk factor for sunburn, especially for young people. The recommendation for sunscreen use should be re-evaluated, as intention to tan is the most important factor in sunburn on vacation and should be targeted more strategically.
The aim of the present study was to describe vitamin D status and seasonal variation in the general Danish population. In this study, 3092 persons aged 2 to 69 years (2565 adults, 527 children) had blood drawn twice (spring and autumn) between 2012 and 2014. A sub-sample of participants had blood samples taken monthly over a year. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations were measured by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry, and information on supplement use was assessed from questionnaires. Seasonal variations in 25(OH)D concentrations were evaluated graphically and descriptively, and status according to age, sex, and supplement use was described. It was found that 86% of both adults and children were vitamin D-sufficient in either spring and or/autumn; however, many had a spring concentration below 50 nmol/L. A wide range of 25(OH)D concentrations were found in spring and autumn, with very low and very high values in both seasons. Among adults, women in general had higher median 25(OH)D concentrations than men. Furthermore, vitamin D supplement use was substantial and affected the median concentrations markedly, more so during spring than autumn. Seasonal variation was thus found to be substantial, and bi-seasonal measurements are vital in order to capture the sizable fluctuations in vitamin D status in this Nordic population.