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Fukushima derived radiocesium in subsistence-consumed northern fur seal and wild celery.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature276592
Source
J Environ Radioact. 2016 Feb;152:1-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-2016
Author
Elizabeth Ruedig
Colleen Duncan
Bobette Dickerson
Michael Williams
Thomas Gelatt
Justin Bell
Thomas E Johnson
Source
J Environ Radioact. 2016 Feb;152:1-7
Date
Feb-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Alaska
Angelica - metabolism
Animals
Cesium Radioisotopes - analysis - metabolism
Food Contamination, Radioactive - analysis
Fukushima Nuclear Accident
Fur Seals - metabolism
Muscle, Skeletal - chemistry
Radiation monitoring
Soil Pollutants, Radioactive - analysis - metabolism
Water Pollutants, Radioactive - analysis - metabolism
Abstract
In July 2014, our investigative team traveled to St. Paul Island, Alaska to measure concentrations of radiocesium in wild-caught food products, primarily northern fur seal (Callorhinus ursinus). The 2011 Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident released radiocesium into the atmosphere and into the western Pacific Ocean; other investigators have detected Fukushima-derived radionuclides in a variety of marine products harvested off the western coast of North America. We tested two subsistence-consumed food products from St. Paul Island, Alaska for Fukushima-derived radionuclides: 54 northern fur seal, and nine putchki (wild celery, Angelica lucida) plants. Individual northern fur seal samples were below minimum detectable activity concentrations of (137)Cs and (134)Cs, but when composited, northern fur seal tissues tested positive for trace quantities of both isotopes. Radiocesium was detected at an activity concentration of 37.2 mBq (134)Cs kg(-1) f.w. (95% CI: 35.9-38.5) and 141.2 mBq (137)Cs kg(-1) f.w. (95% CI: 135.5-146.8). The measured isotopic ratio, decay-corrected to the date of harvest, was 0.26 (95% CI: 0.25-0.28). The Fukushima nuclear accident released (134)Cs and (137)Cs in roughly equal quantities, but by the date of harvest in July 2014, this ratio was 0.2774, indicating that this population of seals has been exposed to small quantities of Fukushima-derived radiocesium. Activity concentrations of both (134)Cs and (137)Cs in putchki were below detection limits, even for composited samples. Northern fur seal is known to migrate between coastal Alaska and Japan and the trace (134)Cs in northern fur seal tissue suggests that the population under study had been minimally exposed Fukushima-derived radionuclides. Despite this inference, the radionuclide quantities detected are small and no impact is expected as a result of the measured radiation exposure, either in northern fur seal or human populations consuming this species.
PubMed ID
26630034 View in PubMed
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Prevalence of algal toxins in Alaskan marine mammals foraging in a changing arctic and subarctic environment.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature295532
Source
Harmful Algae. 2016 05; 55:13-24
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
Date
05-2016
Author
Kathi A Lefebvre
Lori Quakenbush
Elizabeth Frame
Kathy Burek Huntington
Gay Sheffield
Raphaela Stimmelmayr
Anna Bryan
Preston Kendrick
Heather Ziel
Tracey Goldstein
Jonathan A Snyder
Tom Gelatt
Frances Gulland
Bobette Dickerson
Verena Gill
Author Affiliation
Northwest Fisheries Science Center, NOAA Fisheries, Seattle, WA, USA. Electronic address: Kathi.Lefebvre@noaa.gov.
Source
Harmful Algae. 2016 05; 55:13-24
Date
05-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
Keywords
Alaska
Animals
Aquatic Organisms - metabolism
Arctic Regions
California
Caniformia - metabolism
Cetacea - metabolism
Environmental monitoring
Marine Toxins - analysis
Prevalence
Abstract
Current climate trends resulting in rapid declines in sea ice and increasing water temperatures are likely to expand the northern geographic range and duration of favorable conditions for harmful algal blooms (HABs), making algal toxins a growing concern in Alaskan marine food webs. Two of the most common HAB toxins along the west coast of North America are the neurotoxins domoic acid (DA) and saxitoxin (STX). Over the last 20 years, DA toxicosis has caused significant illness and mortality in marine mammals along the west coast of the USA, but has not been reported to impact marine mammals foraging in Alaskan waters. Saxitoxin, the most potent of the paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins, has been well-documented in shellfish in the Aleutians and Gulf of Alaska for decades and associated with human illnesses and deaths due to consumption of toxic clams. There is little information regarding exposure of Alaskan marine mammals. Here, the spatial patterns and prevalence of DA and STX exposure in Alaskan marine mammals are documented in order to assess health risks to northern populations including those species that are important to the nutritional, cultural, and economic well-being of Alaskan coastal communities. In this study, 905 marine mammals from 13 species were sampled including; humpback whales, bowhead whales, beluga whales, harbor porpoises, northern fur seals, Steller sea lions, harbor seals, ringed seals, bearded seals, spotted seals, ribbon seals, Pacific walruses, and northern sea otters. Domoic acid was detected in all 13 species examined and had the greatest prevalence in bowhead whales (68%) and harbor seals (67%). Saxitoxin was detected in 10 of the 13 species, with the highest prevalence in humpback whales (50%) and bowhead whales (32%). Pacific walruses contained the highest concentrations of both STX and DA, with DA concentrations similar to those detected in California sea lions exhibiting clinical signs of DA toxicosis (seizures) off the coast of Central California, USA. Forty-six individual marine mammals contained detectable concentrations of both toxins emphasizing the potential for combined exposure risks. Additionally, fetuses from a beluga whale, a harbor porpoise and a Steller sea lion contained detectable concentrations of DA documenting maternal toxin transfer in these species. These results provide evidence that HAB toxins are present throughout Alaska waters at levels high enough to be detected in marine mammals and have the potential to impact marine mammal health in the Arctic marine environment.
PubMed ID
28073526 View in PubMed
Less detail

Prevalence of algal toxins in Alaskan marine mammals foraging in a changing arctic and subarctic environment.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature279052
Source
Harmful Algae. 2016 May;55:13-24
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-2016
Author
Kathi A Lefebvre
Lori Quakenbush
Elizabeth Frame
Kathy Burek Huntington
Gay Sheffield
Raphaela Stimmelmayr
Anna Bryan
Preston Kendrick
Heather Ziel
Tracey Goldstein
Jonathan A Snyder
Tom Gelatt
Frances Gulland
Bobette Dickerson
Verena Gill
Source
Harmful Algae. 2016 May;55:13-24
Date
May-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Abstract
Current climate trends resulting in rapid declines in sea ice and increasing water temperatures are likely to expand the northern geographic range and duration of favorable conditions for harmful algal blooms (HABs), making algal toxins a growing concern in Alaskan marine food webs. Two of the most common HAB toxins along the west coast of North America are the neurotoxins domoic acid (DA) and saxitoxin (STX). Over the last 20 years, DA toxicosis has caused significant illness and mortality in marine mammals along the west coast of the USA, but has not been reported to impact marine mammals foraging in Alaskan waters. Saxitoxin, the most potent of the paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins, has been well-documented in shellfish in the Aleutians and Gulf of Alaska for decades and associated with human illnesses and deaths due to consumption of toxic clams. There is little information regarding exposure of Alaskan marine mammals. Here, the spatial patterns and prevalence of DA and STX exposure in Alaskan marine mammals are documented in order to assess health risks to northern populations including those species that are important to the nutritional, cultural, and economic well-being of Alaskan coastal communities. In this study, 905 marine mammals from 13 species were sampled including; humpback whales, bowhead whales, beluga whales, harbor porpoises, northern fur seals, Steller sea lions, harbor seals, ringed seals, bearded seals, spotted seals, ribbon seals, Pacific walruses, and northern sea otters. Domoic acid was detected in all 13 species examined and had the greatest prevalence in bowhead whales (68%) and harbor seals (67%). Saxitoxin was detected in 10 of the 13 species, with the highest prevalence in humpback whales (50%) and bowhead whales (32%). Pacific walruses contained the highest concentrations of both STX and DA, with DA concentrations similar to those detected in California sea lions exhibiting clinical signs of DA toxicosis (seizures) off the coast of Central California, USA. Forty-six individual marine mammals contained detectable concentrations of both toxins emphasizing the potential for combined exposure risks. Additionally, fetuses from a beluga whale, a harbor porpoise and a Steller sea lion contained detectable concentrations of DA documenting maternal toxin transfer in these species. These results provide evidence that HAB toxins are present throughout Alaska waters at levels high enough to be detected in marine mammals and have the potential to impact marine mammal health in the Arctic marine environment.
PubMed ID
28073526 View in PubMed
Less detail

Prevalence of Coxiella burnetii and Brucella spp. in tissues from subsistence harvested northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus) of St. Paul Island, Alaska.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature276865
Source
Acta Vet Scand. 2014;56:67
Publication Type
Article
Date
2014
Author
Colleen Duncan
Bobette Dickerson
Kristy Pabilonia
Amy Miller
Tom Gelatt
Source
Acta Vet Scand. 2014;56:67
Date
2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Alaska - epidemiology
Animals
Brucella - isolation & purification
Brucellosis - epidemiology - microbiology - veterinary
Coxiella burnetii - isolation & purification
DNA, Bacterial - analysis
Fur Seals
Prevalence
Q Fever - epidemiology - microbiology - veterinary
Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction - veterinary
Abstract
The northern fur seal (Callorhinus ursinus) is an important cultural and nutritional resource for the Aleut community on St. Paul Island Alaska. In recent years, an increasing number of zoonotic pathogens have been identified in the population, but the public health significance of these findings is unknown. To determine the prevalence of Coxiella burnetii and Brucella spp. in northern fur seal tissues, eight tissue types from 50 subsistence-harvested fur seals were tested for bacterial DNA by real-time polymerase chain reaction.
Of the 400 samples tested, only a single splenic sample was positive for Brucella spp. and the cycle threshold (ct) value was extremely high suggesting a low concentration of DNA within the tissue. C. burnetii DNA was not detected.
Findings suggest that the risk of humans contracting brucellosis or Q fever from the consumption of harvested northern fur seals is low.
Notes
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PubMed ID
25266039 View in PubMed
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