Bone-anchored auricular prostheses (BAAPs) are indicated for treatment of congenital or acquired microtia in children. This paper reports on our experience in establishing a BAAP program, including treatment algorithms, protocols and a discussion of the methodology, complications and patient satisfaction.
Eleven consecutive children using BAAPs were reviewed. Outcome measures include patient selection criteria, long-term stability of the BAAP, skin reactions around the site, and patient satisfaction.
A patient selection program was developed and implemented, followed by a management protocol for surgery and follow-up. All children (100%) achieved osseointegration, with only one site revision necessary. A variable degree of skin irritation was noted in just over one third (39%) of cases. All children were satisfied with their prosthesis.
The use of BAAPs in a pediatric population is a safe and viable method to correct disfiguring microtia. The final result is generally very acceptable to the child.
The objectives of this study were to determine the incidence of acquired cholesteatoma in children with congenital cleft palate, and to determine the impact of various cleft palate types (cleft lip and palate, cleft palate alone, submucous cleft palate) on the development of acquired cholesteatoma.
This is a retrospective cohort study spanning a 25-year period from 1981 to 2005. The Cleft Palate Registry at the Hospital for Sick Children in Toronto, Canada was cross-referenced with the hospital's surgical pathology database to identify all children with cleft palate and acquired cholesteatoma. Accuracy and completeness of the datasets were confirmed by comparison with hospital records and other databases.
There were 2737 children who underwent palatoplasty over the study period, and 44 of these children developed an acquired cholesteatoma. Adjusting for censored data by Kaplan Meier analysis, the incidence of cholesteatoma was 2.2% between the ages 5 and 18 years, or 0.2% per year. Acquired cholesteatoma was 3 times more common in cleft lip and palate than cleft palate alone (p=0.002, Kaplan Meier Log-rank survival analysis).
The rate of acquired cholesteatoma in children with cleft palate is approximately 200 times the baseline rate. Children, especially teenagers, with cleft lip and palate appear to be at significantly higher risk for acquired cholesteatoma than children with cleft palate alone.
To evaluate the rate of cochlear implant (CI) failure and CI reimplantation (CIri) in our population of children receiving implants by means of a technique that includes device fixation with suture to cortical bone.
Retrospective analysis from January 1990 to June 2010.
Tertiary pediatric hospital.
A total of 971 devices were provided to 738 children (5575 implant-years).
Cochlear implant explants and CIri.
Surgical findings at CIri were assessed by device model. The Pediatric Ranked Order Speech Perception score and the Phonetically Balanced Kindergarten score were used to make comparisons of hearing ability before and after CIri.
Thirty-four patients have undergone CIri in our pediatric center during the past 20 years. Excluding 7 of these patients who received their initial implant at other centers, our rate of CIri was 2.9%. Mean (SD) time to device failure was 61 (43) months. A disproportionately high number of patients (7 of 35 [20%]) requiring CIri had meningitis before implantation. After CIri, children maintained or improved their best speech performance measured before device failure, with only 2 children showing a significant reduction in speech perception after CIri.
A very low rate of failure occurs in children who receive CI devices, and several factors may account for this low rate. Children who develop meningitis before CI appear to be at an increased risk of device failure.
To evaluate initial candidacy for bilateral simultaneous cochlear implantation in children.
Prospective case series.
Tertiary academic pediatric hospital.
As part of our research protocol all children eligible for cochlear implantation were assessed for suitability to receive a simultaneous bilateral implant. Over a 12-month period (January to December 2007) 78 children received a total of 95 cochlear implants. Children with sequential second implants (24), revision cases (4), and out of province recipients (4) were excluded. The remaining 46 patients were assessed for bilateral simultaneous implantation.
Team/parental decision to proceed with bilateral simultaneous implantation.
17 children (37%) received simultaneous bilateral implants. 29 children (63%) were not considered suitable for simultaneous bilateral implantation. Reasons included developmental delay (10), residual borderline hearing in the second ear (9), parental/patient refusal (6), abnormally poor speech development for age (2), and abnormal cochlear anatomy precluding implantation (2). None were considered unsuitable for the more prolonged operative procedure on medical grounds.
Although bilateral implantation is thought to produce the optimal auditory outcome, not all patients are suitable, nor do all parents wish to proceed, when assessed for simultaneous implantation. Some of these patients are likely to be candidates for sequential bilateral implantation in due course.
To review the Hospital of Sick Children, Toronto's experience of the diagnosis and management of retropharyngeal and parapharyngeal infections with particular emphasis on the role of computed tomography (CT) imaging in diagnosing the presence of an abscess.
A retrospective analysis of all patients diagnosed with retropharyngeal and parapharyngeal infections from 1987 to 1999 was performed. Demographic data, presenting symptoms, season of presentation, management and complications were reviewed. The CT scans of 27 patients who underwent surgical treatment were retrospectively examined by two neuroradiologists who were blinded to the patient's history and outcome. The sensitivity, specificity and predictive values for the specific features and overall assessment were calculated.
Fifty-four children were identified. There were 46 retropharyngeal infections, 6 parapharyngeal infections and 2 patients had both retropharyngeal and parapharyngeal infections. All patients were treated with parenteral antibiotics. Thirty-seven patients underwent surgical drainage and in 27 there was a positive finding of pus. The retrospectively assessed CT scans of the 21 patients who underwent surgery were found to have a sensitivity of 81% in detecting an abscess by CT scan but the specificity was 57%. There were four complications including mediastinitis, aspiration pneumonia, internal jugular vein thrombosis and common carotid artery aneurysm. All patients recovered but abscess recurred in five patients.
Not all patients with retropharyngeal and parapharyngeal abscesses require surgery. Whilst CT scans are helpful in diagnosing and assessing the extent of these infections they are not always accurate in detecting an abscess. A decision to drain an abscess should therefore not be made based solely on the CT findings.