Improvements in the clinical management of CDH have led to overall improved reported result from single institutions. However, population-based studies have highlighted a hidden mortality.
To explore the incidence in Sweden and to address the hidden mortality for CDH during a 27-year period in a population-based setting.
This is a population based cohort study that includes all patients diagnosed with CDH that were registered in the National Patient Register, the Medical Birth Register, the Register of Congenital Malformations and the Register for Causes of Death between 1987 and 2013. The mortality rates were calculated based on the number deaths divided by the number of live born cases. The hidden mortality was defined as the number of CDH cases that were not born (because of TOP or IUFD), cases of neonatal demise during birth or demise the same day of birth in patients who were in peripheral institutions and who never reached tertiary centers.
In total, 861 CDH patients were born in Sweden between 1987 and 2013, which corresponds to an incidence of 3.0 born CDH per 10,000 live births. When adding the cases of TOP and IUFD, the total incidence of CDH in Sweden was 3.5/10,000 live born. The mortality rate between 1987 and 2013 was 36%: 44% during the first time period 1987-1999 and 27% in the later period 2000-2013. The hidden mortality in the second period was 30%, resulting in a total mortality rate of 45%.
The incidence of CDH during a 27-year period remained unchanged in the population. However, we observed a decrease in the prevalence because of the increasing numbers of TOP. A significant hidden mortality exists, with overall mortality rate of 45% for CDH in this population.
The purpose of this study was to examine the experiences of children with high and intermediate imperforate anus (IA), and specifically their experiences of hospital care.
Twenty-five children born with high and intermediate IA participated; 9 boys and 16 girls. The mean age was 10.5 years (range 8.0-13.6). Two control groups were involved in the study. A self-report questionnaire was used to gather the data concerning children's experiences of hospital care. Items were scored on a 5-point Likert scale.
The children's responses on hospital care items scored high. The children with IA reported being less satisfied with the information given, and understood less why they needed to visit the hospital than did the children in the two control groups.
The children's experiences of care seemed to be positive even though the children born with IA are subjected to invasive treatment. More research is called for in the unexplored area of information to the children, and particularly to the children born with a defect. Children's views are important and should always be considered, as their answers most certainly reflect a genuine experience, contributing to the further development of their specific care.
There is no consensus on the treatment of congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH), and practice seems to vary between centres. The main purpose of the present study was to survey current practice in Scandinavia. Thirteen paediatric surgical centres serving a population of about 22 million were invited, and all participated. One questionnaire was completed at each centre. The questionnaire evaluated management following prenatal diagnosis, intensive care strategies, operative treatment, and long-term follow-up. Survival data (1995-1998) were available from 12 of 13 centres. Following prenatal diagnosis of CDH, vaginal delivery and maternal steroids were used at eight and six centres, respectively. All centres used high-frequency oscillation ventilation (HFOV), nitric oxide (NO), and surfactant comparatively often. Five centres had extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) facilities, and four centres transferred ECMO candidates. The majority of centres (7/9) always tried HFOV before ECMO was instituted. Surgery was performed when the neonate was clinically stable (11/13) and when no signs of pulmonary hypertension were detected by echo-Doppler (6/13). The repair was performed by laparotomy at all centres and most commonly with nonabsorbable sutures (8/13). Thoracic drain was used routinely at seven centres. Long-term follow-up at a paediatric surgical centre was uncommon (3/13). Only three centres treated more than five CDH patients per year. Comparing survival in centres treating more than five with those treating five or fewer CDH patients per year, there was a tendency towards better survival in the higher-volume centres (72.4%) than in the centres with lower volume (58.7%), p =0.065.
There is a lack of large contemporary studies on the management of congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH), and the prediction of mortality remains difficult. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of perinatal factors on mortality rate in a contemporary multicenter study.
The authors conducted a retrospective multicenter cohort study. Twelve of 13 Scandinavian pediatric surgical centers participated in the study. During a 4-year period (1995 through 1998) 195 children with CDH were included. The main endpoints were hospital mortality rate and total mortality rate (before 2001). Bivariate and multivariate survival analyses were performed using Kaplan-Meier plots, Log-rank test, and Cox regression.
Overall hospital mortality rate was 30%. Among 168 neonates with symptoms within 24 hours (early presenters) 35% died before discharge. All 61 deaths occurred in 157 neonates with symptoms within the first 2 hours of life. Among early presenters, 27% had prenatal ultrasound diagnosis, 26% were delivered by cesarean section, and 21% had associated major malformations. Bivariate analysis of early presenters showed increased risk of death in neonates with prenatal diagnosis, associated anomalies, right-sided diaphragmatic hernia (RCDH), low 1-minute and 5-minute Apgar scores, low birth weight, short gestational age, and cesarean delivery. Neonates with prenatal diagnosis were characterized by significantly lower Apgar scores, lower birth weight, and increased frequency of associated anomalies than those diagnosed after birth. Multivariate analysis found that prenatal diagnosis (P =.004), 1-minute Apgar (P =.001), and RCDH (P =.042) were independent predictors of total mortality rate.
In a series of 195 CDH patients, all 61 deaths occurred in the 157 neonates presenting with symptoms within the first 2 hours of life. Prenatal diagnosis, 1-minute Apgar score, and RCDH were significant independent predictors of total mortality.
Imperforate anus is a malformation of the child's anus. Parents' experiences of responsibility for care of the child may differ. The aim of this study was to evaluate a gender perspective on the extent to which mothers and fathers each take responsibility for the care of a child with high and intermediate imperforate anus. Parents of children with imperforate anus and two control groups of children and parents participated. Data collection with questionnaires focusing on responsibility was performed. In conclusion, our study revealed additional evidence of unevenly divided parental responsibility for care of a child with a chronic condition. The mothers in this study were shown to be the primary caregiver.
Increased knowledge about families with a malformed child affects nursing practice. This study illuminates the experiences and psychosocial situation of 3 patients with imperforate anus and their parents. A qualitative method has been used to analyze the data. We found that the parents' experiences of suffering were overwhelming and that the 3 patients had been depressed during periods. The patients were not as open as their parents; we need to devise better tools to explore and understand children's experiences. The children and their parents need special care and an opportunity to express their anxieties.
To evaluate how the surgeons' decision-making process in appendicitis in children is affected by radiologic imaging.
Prospective study including 593 children with suspected appendicitis was conducted. The surgeon's initial clinical disposition was recorded, designating the patient for operation, observation, or discharge. Thereafter, the patients were randomized to undergo either ultrasound only or ultrasound and abdominal computed tomography. The studies were evaluated by radiologists, who indicated if appendicitis was present or not. After radiology was completed, the surgeon re-examined the patient and made the final disposition. The change of disposition pathway was recorded. Final diagnoses were established by means of surgical, histopathologic, and/or clinical follow-up findings.
Two hundred forty-four patients had appendicitis. The initial clinical disposition called for 88 operations, 338 observations, and 167 discharges. In total, 347 patients had their treatment plan changed from the initial disposition, resulting in 252 operations, 65 observations, and 276 discharges. In 11 patients, an unnecessary operation was possibly avoided. In 28 patients who turned out to have appendicitis, a possible inappropriate discharge was avoided. Eighteen patients had a false-negative radiologic diagnosis. Of these, 17 underwent surgery because of convincing clinical findings. The difference between the impact on surgeons' decision-making between the two randomized groups was not substantially different. The negative appendectomy rate was 3.7%.
Radiologic imaging with ultrasound and/or computed tomography provides valuable guidance whether a patient should be discharged, observed, or given surgical treatment, leading to beneficial changes in management plan. Still, false-negative results may occur and a close clinical re-examination is of utmost importance for the appropriate final decision.
The use of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in adults with respiratory failure and sepsis is steadily increasing, but the knowledge on long-term survival in this group is scarce. The aim of the present study was to investigate the 5-year survival rates and causes of late death in this group of patients.
Single-center retrospective cohort study.
Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
Adult patients treated with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for respiratory failure and sepsis between the service being established for adults in 1995 and December 2013.
Survival status was attained from a national Causes of Death registry. Minimal patient background data, along with data on survival and causes of death were collected. Survival rates were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Of 255 subjects, 64% survived to discharge. The median follow-up time in survivors was 4.4 years. There was a high mortality rate within the first months after discharge. In the group of patients who survived the first 90 days after treatment, the 5-year survival rate was 87% and was particularly beneficial in patients treated for infectious diseases (88-100%). Late deaths were seen in most diagnostic groups, but the Kaplan-Meier curves flattened out over time.
Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation treatment in adult patients with respiratory failure and sepsis can be lifesaving in appropriately selected patients. For patients who survive the first months after extracorporeal membrane oxygenation treatment, long-term survival seems good, especially in patients treated for infections.
Background: It has been suggested from several animal studies and clinical observations that congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) with pulmonary hypoplasia is accompanied by a disturbed perinatal ion transport. This could lead to respiratory distress due to slower clearance of fetal lung fluid at birth. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine whether CDH is related to changes in the expression of three rate-limiting transporter proteins in lung epithelium at birth. Methods: Tracheal aspirate was collected from 12 newborn infants with CDH and from 8 newborn control patients. Sampling was performed at postnatal age 18 and at 43 h in the CDH group and at 18 h in the control group. The protein abundance of alpha-, beta- and gamma-epithelial Na(+) channel (ENaC), aquaporin 5 and Na(+), K(+)-ATPase alpha(1) was analyzed using semiquantitative immunoblotting. Results: The levels of beta-ENaC, gamma-ENaC and Na(+), K(+)-ATPase alpha(1) collected at 18 h postnatally were significantly lower in CDH infants compared to control infants. In the CDH group, no significant difference in the expression of the ENaC subunits, Na(+), K(+)-ATPase alpha(1) or aquaporin 5 could be detected between the two sampling time points. Conclusions: This downregulation may result in an abnormal lung fluid absorption which could be an important mechanism behind the respiratory distress seen in newborn CDH patients.