To examine the association between childhood abuse and fear of childbirth and the wish for cesarean section during second pregnancy.
A longitudinal cohort study using data from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa) conducted by the Norwegian Institute of Public Health.
Fifty maternity units in Norway, 1999-2006.
We included 4,876 women who participated in the MoBa study during their first and second pregnancy.
Postal questionnaires at 18 and 30 weeks' gestation and 6 months postpartum linked to the Medical Birth Registry of Norway.
Associations between childhood abuse and women's fear of childbirth and preference for cesarean section during second pregnancy were assessed using regression analyses, adjusting for confounding factors such as mode of delivery and birth experience of first pregnancy.
Of 4,876 women, 1,023 (21%) reported some form of childhood abuse. Compared to women without a history of childhood abuse, childhood-abused women more frequently reported fear of childbirth (23% vs. 15%, p
AIMS: Reproductive behaviour has changed during the most recent decades, with increased infertility and subfertility. This study evaluated fertility, estimated the prevalence of fertility problems, and assessed possible predictors for impaired fertility. METHODS: Eligible subjects were 9,983 menopausal women participating in two health surveys. Data were collected by comprehensive questionnaires. RESULTS: Of all women 89.3% were fertile, 4.8% were subfertile, 4.1% were voluntarily childless, and 1.8% were involuntaruly childless. Impaired fertility was associated with a higher level of education and excessive alcohol intake. There were significant differences in subfertility among the parous women, with increased subfertility with decreasing age. Among the nullipara, involuntary childlessness was more prevalent in the youngest age group, while voluntary childlessness increased with advancing age. CONCLUSIONS: Fertility problems were quite common, and have increased in younger age groups, though seemingly fewer women remained childless past their reproductive age in the youngest age group.
Studies suggest that health complaints, distress and poor life satisfaction are associated with infertility experience. Research on health consequences of infertility experience in women has relied heavily on clinic-based samples. This population-based study investigates the association between infertility and health and life satisfaction.
Cross-sectional population-based health study, conducted between 2006 and 2008.
All women in a county in Norway were invited. The current material is restricted to women aged 20-49 years.
A total of 9200 women participated.
Health measures were compared between women with infertility experience (infertile women) and women without infertility experience (non-infertile women). Disparities in health and life satisfaction among the infertile women were assessed.
Self-reported health, functional impairment, depression, anxiety, and life satisfaction.
Some 15.4% of the women had experienced infertility. Infertile women reported poor self-reported health and functional impairment significantly more often than non-infertile women. Childless infertile women had significantly raised adjusted risks for health complaints and dissatisfaction with life compared with non-infertile women with a child, whereas infertile women with a child did not. Differences in health and life satisfaction emerged among the infertile women, but the differences were not significant. There were no significant differences in depression and anxiety between infertile and non-infertile women, or between the two groups of infertile women (with/without a child).
The study confirms the adverse effect of infertility on health and life-satisfaction. The childless infertile women stand out as being vulnerable to the detrimental consequences of infertility.
The rate of cesarean section (CS) for non-medical reasons has risen and it is a concern for health care. Women's preferences may vary across countries for psychosocial or obstetric reasons.
A prospective cohort study of 6549 women in routine antenatal care giving birth in Belgium, Iceland, Denmark, Estonia, Norway or Sweden. Preference for mode of birth was self-reported in mid-pregnancy. Birth outcome data were collected from hospital records.
A CS was preferred by 3.5% of primiparous women and 8.7% of the multiparous women. Preference for CS was associated with severe fear of childbirth (FOC), with a negative birth experience in multiparous women and with depressive symptoms in the primiparous. Women were somewhat more prone to prefer a cesarean in Iceland, odd ratio (OR) 1.70 (1.02-2.83), adjusted for age, education, depression, FOC, history of abuse, previous cesarean and negative birth experience. Out of the 404 women who preferred CS during pregnancy, 286 (70.8%) delivered by CS, mostly for a medical indication. A total of 9% of the cesareans in the cohort had a non-medical indication only.
Women's preference for CS often seems to be due to health concerns. Both medical and psychological factors need to be addressed in antenatal counseling. Obstetricians need to convey accurately to women the risks and benefits of CS in her specific case. Maternity professionals should identify and explore psychosocial reasons for women's preferences.
The caesarean (CS) section rate varies among hospitals in Norway, and little is known about whether this is influenced by women's preferences. The aim of this study was to investigate the differences in women's preferred mode of delivery during pregnancy between five hospitals in Norway, and to relate this to the actual mode of delivery.
A prospective cohort study of 2,177 unselected pregnant women in five hospitals in Norway. Women were recruited at their standard ultrasound examinations, and data was collected through questionnaires and electronic patient charts. The exposure was a CS preference and the main outcome measure was the actual mode of delivery.
In total, 3.5% of the primiparous women and 9.6% of the multiparous women reported a preference for CS. This was associated with fear of childbirth and education between 10 and 13?years in both groups, symptoms of depression and an age over 35?years old among the primiparous women, and a previous CS and/or negative birth experience among the multiparous. The multiparous women in Drammen and Tromsø were less likely to prefer a CS, and none of the primiparous women in Tromsø preferred a CS. A total of 67.8% of those who preferred a CS gave birth with this mode of delivery.
There were significant differences between the hospitals according to the CS preference. This preference was associated with the previous obstetric history and psychological factors. Therefore, creating good birth experiences and offering women counselling may reduce the CS preference rate.