BACKGROUND: The aims of the present study were: 1) to estimate the prevalence of emotional, physical and sexual abuse and abuse in the health care system, and 2) to study the associations between prevalence of abuse and sociodemographic and sample variables. METHODS: This cross-sectional study used a validated postal questionnaire in four Swedish samples; patients at three gynecologic clinics with different character and in different regions (n = 2439) and women in one randomized population sample (n = 1168). RESULTS: Any lifetime emotional abuse was reported by 16.8-21.4% of the women; physical abuse by 32.1-37.5%; sexual abuse by 15.9-17.0%; and abuse in the health care system by 14.0-19.7%. For 7-8% abuse had included life threats and 9-20% of all women in the study currently suffered from their experiences of abuse. Most women had not disclosed their background of abuse to the gynecologist. There were differences in sociodemographic variables between the four samples. Generally, in the multivariate analyses we found associations between prevalence of abuse and age, educational level, civil status and occupation, but no consistent association between prevalence of abuse and sample variables. CONCLUSION: Lifetime prevalence rates of the four kinds of abuse were high in all samples as measured by the NorVold Abuse Questionnaire (NorAQ), and 1/10-1/5 women in the study suffered currently from abusive experiences. In multivariate analyses prevalence of abuse was consistently associated with sociodemographic but not to sample variables.
The incidence of forearm fractures for men and women =40 years in Central Norway was high during the period 1999-2012. A decline in fractures was observed only among women over 50 years. A seasonal variation with highest incidence in the winter months was found among women.
The aim of this study was to examine the incidence of forearm fractures in Central Norway in men and women 40 years and older from 1999 to 2012 and assess time trends as well as seasonal variations.
Data is from the fracture registry in Nord-Trøndelag, including all forearm fractures in persons =40 sustained from 1999 to 2012. Annual incidence of forearm fractures were calculated and tested for trends. Variations in the occurrence of fractures were explored by comparing proportion of fractures by month and seasons.
The study population consisted of 4003 subjects (77.1% women). The total number of fractures were 4240. There was an increase in fractures for women with increasing age, steepest, a three-fold increase between age group 40-50 and the age group 50-60. Among men, this pattern was not observed as incidences did not change with increasing age. The age-standardized incidence rate for all fractures among women =50 ranged from 82 fractures per 1000 (95% CI 71-94) to 100 (88-114) and among men from 19 (14-27) to 31 (24-39). Restricting the analysis to the first fracture sustained during the observed period, women =50 years showed a reduction in fractures of 1.30% per year (95% CI 0.01%: 2.56%,) and 12.18% per 10 years (3.61%: 19.98%). For all women, there was a trend towards a decline of 0.73% per year (-2.29%: 0.85%), although not significant. For men, there was a trend towards an increase in fractures of 1.66% per year (-0.11%: 3.45%). The occurrence of fractures among women varied by season of the year, with higher fracture rates in the winter months.
The incidence rate of forearm fractures in Central Norway was high. However, a small decline in the incidence of the first fracture among women older than 50 years was observed. Fractures were more often sustained during winter months among women.
Abuse of women occurs in every society of the world. Increased information about the prevalence in industrialized countries, like Norway, is required to make strategies to prevent abuse. Our aim was to investigate the prevalence of self-reported sexual, physical and emotional abuse in a large obstetric population in Norway, and the associations between exposure to adult abuse, socio-demographics and other characteristics.
Our study is based on the Norwegian Mother and Child (MoBa) Cohort study, conducted by the Norwegian Institute of Public Health. The current study included 65,393 women who responded to two extensive postal questionnaires during pregnancy. Any adult abuse is defined as being exposed to one or more types of adult abuse, any child abuse is defined as being exposed to one or more types of child abuse, and any lifetime abuse is defined as being exposed to abuse either as a child and/or as an adult. Perpetrators were categorized as known or stranger.
Overall, 32% of the women reported any lifetime abuse, 20% reported any adult abuse, 19% reported any child abuse and 6% reported abuse both as adults and as children. Emotional abuse was the most frequently reported type of abuse both as adults (16%) and children (14%). Adult sexual abuse was reported by 5% and child sexual abuse by 7%. Physical abuse was reported by 6% as adults and by 6% as children. Approximately 30% of those reporting adult or child abuse reported exposure to two or three types of abuse. Five percent of the women reported exposure to any abuse during the last 12 months. For all types of abuse, a known perpetrator was more commonly reported. Logistic regression showed that being exposed to child abuse, smoking and drinking alcohol in the first trimester of pregnancy, living alone, and belonging to the eldest age group were significantly associated with being exposed to any adult abuse.
The reported prevalence of any lifetime abuse was substantial in our low-risk pregnant population. Antenatal care is an opportunity for clinicians to ask about experiences of abuse and identify those at risk.