Based on a total of 136,140 hip fractures, we found a distinct seasonal variation in hip fracture incidence present in subgroups defined by age, gender, and comorbidity. The seasonal variation was most pronounced in the youngest and the healthiest patients.
The purpose of this study was to examine the possible seasonal variation in hip fracture incidence in Norway by comorbidity, age, and gender.
Data were retrieved from the NOREPOS Hip Fracture Database containing all hip fractures in Norway during the time period 1994-2008. Hip fractures were identified by computerized hospital discharge diagnoses. Charlson comorbidity index was calculated based on additional diagnoses and categorized (0, 1, and =2). Summer was defined as June, July, and August and winter as December, January, and February. Incidence rate ratios for hip fracture according to season were calculated by negative binomial models.
In patients aged 50-103 years, 136,140 eligible fractures were identified (72.5 % women). The relative risk of hip fracture in winter versus summer was 1.40 (95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.36-1.45) in men and 1.26 (95 % CI 1.23-1.28) in women. June had the lowest number of fractures in both genders. We found seasonal variation in all subgroups by age and gender, although least pronounced in patients >79 years. There was a significant interaction between season and comorbidity (p?=?0.022). When comparing winter to summer, we found relative risks of 1.40 (95 % CI 1.31-1.50) in patients with Charlson index?=?0, 1.29 (95 % CI 1.19-1.40) in patients with Charlson index?=?1, and 1.18 (95 % CI 1.08-1.28) in patients with Charlson index =2.
There was a distinct seasonal variation in hip fracture incidence, present in all subgroups of gender, age, or comorbidity. This variation should be accounted for when planning health-care services.
Hip fractures are associated with increased mortality and their incidence in Norway is one of the highest worldwide. The aim of this nationwide study was to examine short- and long-term mortality after hip fractures, burden of disease (attributable fraction and potential years of life lost), and time trends in mortality compared to the total Norwegian population. Information on incident hip fractures between 1999 and 2008 in all persons aged 50 years and older was collected from Norwegian hospitals. Death and emigration dates of the hip fracture patients were obtained through 31 December 2010. Standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) were calculated and Poisson regression analyses were used for the estimation of time trends in SMRs. Among the 81,867 patients with a first hip fracture, the 1-year excess mortality was 4.6-fold higher in men, and 2.8-fold higher in women compared to the general population. Although the highest excess mortality was observed during the first two weeks post fracture, the excess risk persisted for twelve years. Mortality rates post hip fracture were higher in men compared to women in all age groups studied. In both genders aged 50 years and older, approximately 5% of the total mortality in the population was related to hip fractures. The largest proportion of the potential life-years lost was in the relatively young-old, i.e. less than 80 years. In men, the 1-year absolute mortality rates post hip fracture declined significantly between 1999 and 2008, by contrast, the mortality in women increased significantly relatively to the population mortality.