Internationally, studies have shown that childhood violence is associated with chronic pain in adulthood. However, to date, this relationship has not been examined in any indigenous population.
The main objectives of this study were to investigate the association between childhood violence and reported chronic pain, number of pain sites and the intensity of pain in adulthood in indigenous Sami and non-Sami adults, and to explore ethnic differences.
The study is based on the SAMINOR 2 questionnaire study, a larger population-based, cross-sectional survey on health and living conditions in multiethnic areas with both Sami and non-Sami populations in Mid- and Northern Norway. Our study includes a total of 11,130 adult participants: 2,167 Sami respondents (19.5%) and 8,963 non-Sami respondents (80.5%). Chronic pain was estimated by reported pain located in various parts of the body. Childhood violence was measured by reported exposure of emotional, physical and/or sexual violence.
Childhood violence was associated with adult chronic pain in several pain sites of the body regardless of ethnicity and gender. Childhood violence was also associated with increased number of chronic pain sites and higher pain intensity compared to those not exposed to childhood violence. However, among Sami men, this association was only significant for pain located in chest, hips/legs and back, and non-significant for increased number of chronic pain sites (adjusted model), and higher pain intensity.
Respondents exposed to childhood violence reported more chronic pain in several parts of the body, increased number of chronic pain sites and more intense pain in adulthood than respondents reporting no childhood violence. However, among Sami men, this association was weaker and also not significant for increased number of chronic pain sites and higher pain intensity.
Maximizing attainment of optimal peak bone mineral density (BMD) is a potential osteoporosis prevention strategy. The main objective of this study was to identify correlates of forearm BMD in young adult women. Population-based data derived from standardized questionnaires administered to healthy women aged 19-35 years in Nord-Trøndelag, Norway (n = 963), were collected in 1995-1997. Forearm BMD was assessed by single x-ray absorptiometry. Multiple linear and logistic regression analyses were used to determine correlates of BMD (g/cm(2)) and lowest quintile of BMD, respectively, at the ultradistal and distal sites. The mean age and weight of the cohort were 29.7 years (standard deviation 4.7) and 68.6 kg (standard deviation 12.5), respectively. Age and weight were positively associated with BMD at both forearm sites. When data were controlled for age and weight, later age at menarche and lack of milk consumption were associated with lower BMD values. In both linear models and logistic models, none of the factors vitamin D intake, physical activity, smoking, alcohol consumption, amenorrhea, oral contraceptive use, number of pregnancies, history of breastfeeding, and family history of osteoporosis were found to be significantly associated with BMD. Prior studies have suggested that calcium supplementation in children is useful for optimizing peak BMD. Further studies exploring the relation between lifestyle factors and BMD are warranted to search for ways to maximize attainment of peak BMD.
Department of General Practice and Community Medicine, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway; Division of Epidemiology, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway; Department of Public Health and Primary Health Care, University of Bergen, Norway. email@example.com, Tone.Kristin.Omsland@fhi.no.
Department of Public Health and General Practice, Faculty of Medicine, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Medisinsk teknisk forskningssenter, N-7489 Trondheim, Norway. firstname.lastname@example.org
OBJECTIVE: To describe the implementation of medical examination and forensic analysis in the police investigation of sexual assaults, and compare police-reported cases with and without medico-legal examination of the victim. METHODS: A retrospective study of all police-reported sexual assaults against women in the county of Sør-Trøndelag, Norway, January 1997-June 2003. Information from the police files was merged with information from the only specialized health care system in the region, the Sexual Assault Care Centre (SACC), St. Olav's Hospital, Trondheim. RESULTS: Of the 185 police-reported cases identified, 101 (55%) involved women examined at the SACC. A medical report was requested in 83% of the latter, while forensic analyses of biological samples from the victim's body were performed in a mere 29%. In cases without examination at the SACC, there was more likely assault outside the city, over one week's delay between the assault and police-reporting, over one assault reported, and assault coded as attempted rape, while vaginal penetration was less likely. Adjusting for delay of reporting, geographical closeness to health care remained predictive of medical examination. Only 16% of the cases were prosecuted. CONCLUSION: The police requested a medical report in most cases where the victim had undergone examination, while a minority of collected biological samples was analyzed. Consequently, a vigilant and thorough documentation of mental state, physical injuries and history of assault should be emphasized.
The aim of this study was to examine the association between victim, suspect and assault characteristics and (1) forensic analysis of trace evidence, (2) detection of spermatozoa and (3) DNA match in police-reported cases of rape/attempted rape. In addition, we explored whether DNA findings were associated with legal outcome.
We conducted a retrospective, descriptive study based on police-reported rapes and attempted rapes of women ?=16?years of age in Sør-Trøndelag Police District throughout 1997-2010. Police data were merged with information from the Sexual Assault Centre (SAC) at St. Olavs University Hospital, Trondheim, Norway. We used binary and multivariable logistic regression for the comparisons.
We identified 324 victims (mean age 24 years). The police requested analysis in 135 (45%) of the 299 collected victim samples. The police decision to analyze was after adjustment associated with the victim being employed or under education, and a public venue, but not with interval from assault to sampling. Spermatozoa were detected in 79 (61%) of the analyzed cases, of which 71 were collected from victims within 24h. Interval from assault being
Abuse of women occurs in every society of the world. Increased information about the prevalence in industrialized countries, like Norway, is required to make strategies to prevent abuse. Our aim was to investigate the prevalence of self-reported sexual, physical and emotional abuse in a large obstetric population in Norway, and the associations between exposure to adult abuse, socio-demographics and other characteristics.
Our study is based on the Norwegian Mother and Child (MoBa) Cohort study, conducted by the Norwegian Institute of Public Health. The current study included 65,393 women who responded to two extensive postal questionnaires during pregnancy. Any adult abuse is defined as being exposed to one or more types of adult abuse, any child abuse is defined as being exposed to one or more types of child abuse, and any lifetime abuse is defined as being exposed to abuse either as a child and/or as an adult. Perpetrators were categorized as known or stranger.
Overall, 32% of the women reported any lifetime abuse, 20% reported any adult abuse, 19% reported any child abuse and 6% reported abuse both as adults and as children. Emotional abuse was the most frequently reported type of abuse both as adults (16%) and children (14%). Adult sexual abuse was reported by 5% and child sexual abuse by 7%. Physical abuse was reported by 6% as adults and by 6% as children. Approximately 30% of those reporting adult or child abuse reported exposure to two or three types of abuse. Five percent of the women reported exposure to any abuse during the last 12 months. For all types of abuse, a known perpetrator was more commonly reported. Logistic regression showed that being exposed to child abuse, smoking and drinking alcohol in the first trimester of pregnancy, living alone, and belonging to the eldest age group were significantly associated with being exposed to any adult abuse.
The reported prevalence of any lifetime abuse was substantial in our low-risk pregnant population. Antenatal care is an opportunity for clinicians to ask about experiences of abuse and identify those at risk.
The objective of this study was to explore the association between sexual violence and neonatal outcomes.
National cohort study.
Women were recruited to the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa) while attending routine ultrasound examinations from 1999 to 2008.
A total of 76 870 pregnant women.
Sexual violence and maternal characteristics were self-reported in postal questionnaires during pregnancy. Neonatal outcomes were retrieved from the Medical Birth Registry of Norway (MBRN). Risk estimations were performed with linear and logistic regression analysis.
gestational age at birth, birth weight, preterm birth (PTB), low birth weight (LBW) and small for gestational age (SGA).
Of 76 870 women, 18.4% reported a history of sexual violence. A total of 4.7% delivered prematurely, 2.7% had children with a birth weight
This paper describes the history, purpose, data collection and contributions in the research collaboration Norwegian Osteoporosis Epidemiologic Studies (NOREPOS).
NOREPOS encompasses almost 85,000 bone mineral density measurements within Cohort of Norway and data on almost 140,000 hip fractures in Norway 1994-2008. Included are anthropometric measurements, blood pressure, lipids and glucose, and 50 standard questions on sociodemographic factors, diseases and risk factors. Blood samples/DNA are stored. The main research question posed in NOREPOS is why hip fracture rates in Norway are the highest in the world. Data on hip fractures 2009-2013 will be added in 2014.
Main findings include: Every hour a Norwegian suffers a hip fracture; hip fracture incidence rates declined after 1999; only 16% of patients used anti-osteoporosis drugs 1 year after hip fracture; 25% of patients died within 1 year after the fracture; 12% suffered a new hip fracture within 10 years; rural dwellers had lower hip and forearm fracture incidence than city dwellers; magnesium in tap water may be protective whereas bacterial contamination, cadmium and lead may be harmful to bone health; low serum vitamin D and E levels were associated with higher hip fracture risk; vitamin A was not associated with fracture risk; and abdominal obesity increased the risk of hip fracture when BMI was accounted for.
NOREPOS encompasses a unique source of information for aetiological research, genetic studies as well as for biomarkers of osteoporosis and fractures. Because of the increasing number of elderly people in Europe, hip fractures will continue to pose an international public health and health care challenge.
AIMS: Reproductive behaviour has changed during the most recent decades, with increased infertility and subfertility. This study evaluated fertility, estimated the prevalence of fertility problems, and assessed possible predictors for impaired fertility. METHODS: Eligible subjects were 9,983 menopausal women participating in two health surveys. Data were collected by comprehensive questionnaires. RESULTS: Of all women 89.3% were fertile, 4.8% were subfertile, 4.1% were voluntarily childless, and 1.8% were involuntaruly childless. Impaired fertility was associated with a higher level of education and excessive alcohol intake. There were significant differences in subfertility among the parous women, with increased subfertility with decreasing age. Among the nullipara, involuntary childlessness was more prevalent in the youngest age group, while voluntary childlessness increased with advancing age. CONCLUSIONS: Fertility problems were quite common, and have increased in younger age groups, though seemingly fewer women remained childless past their reproductive age in the youngest age group.