The aim of this study is to report the short-term results of catheter-directed foam sclerotherapy (CDFS) in the treatment of axial saphenous vein incompetence.
Data of all patients undergoing CDFS for symptomatic primary incompetence of the great or small saphenous vein were prospectively collected. Treatment results in terms of occlusion rate and patients' grade of satisfaction were analysed. All successfully treated patients underwent clinical and duplex follow-up examinations one year postoperatively.
Between September 2006 and September 2010, 357 limbs (337 patients) were treated with CDFS at our institution. Based on the CEAP classification, 64 were allocated to clinical class C3 , 128 to class C4, 102 to class C5 and 63 to class C6. Of the 188 patients who completed the one year follow up examination, 67 % had a complete and 14 % a near complete obliteration of the treated vessel. An ulcer-healing rate of 54 % was detected. 92 % of the patients were satisfied with the results of treatment. We registered six cases of thrombophlebitis and two cases of venous thromboembolism, all requiring treatment.
The short-term results of CDFS in patients with axial vein incompetence are acceptable in terms of occlusion and complications rates.
External quality assessment of HbA1c and its effect on comparison between Swedish pediatric diabetes clinics. Experiences from the Swedish pediatric diabetes quality register (Swediabkids) and Equalis.
BACKGROUND: Thrombin activation measured by the levels of the complex between activated protein C (APC) and the protein C inhibitor (PCI) is elevated in several atherosclerotic disorders. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether levels of the APC-PCI complex are related to the prognosis in peripheral arterial disease (PAD). Longitudinal study performed at the Vascular Centre, Malm? University Hospital, Sweden. METHODS: APC-PCI complex levels were analyzed in 268 consecutive patients hospitalized for PAD and in 42 healthy controls (median age, 74 years). Patients (n = 35) with warfarin treatment less than 4 weeks before APC-PCI sampling were excluded from analysis. Data-based medical records of all 233 remaining patients (median age, 72 [64-79] years) were searched for vascular events such as hospitalization because of atherosclerotic disease, operative or endovascular recanalization of peripheral arteries, transtibial or transfemoral amputation because of PAD, acute coronary syndrome, stroke, or death. RESULTS: Median duration of follow-up was 16 months (interquartile range, 12-23 months). APC-PCI complex levels were higher in PAD patients than in controls (0.240 [0.180-0.320] microg/L vs. 0.140 [0.190-0.220] microg/L; p
We evaluated whether matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) 2 and 9, their inhibitors, markers for fibrinolysis, and thrombin activation are associated with diameter and growth of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs). Material and Methods: Matrix metalloproteinases 2 and 9, tissue inhibitor of MMPs (TIMP-1), serpine-1, tPa-serpine-1, and activated protein C- protein C inhibitor (APC-PCI) complex were analyzed in 353 patients with AAA grouped according to AAA size, and 219 gender- and age-matched healthy individuals. Follow-up of AAA growth for up to 7 years was possible in 178 of 353 patients. Results: At baseline, all groups of patients with AAA showed lower levels of MMP-2 and -9, and higher levels of TIMP-1, serpine-1, and t-Pa-serpine-1 than controls. Matrix metalloproteinase 2 correlated inversely and APC-PCI complex correlated directly with AAA diameter. We found no correlations between markers for proteolysis, fibrinolysis, coagulation, and yearly AAA growth. CONCLUSION: Matrix metalloproteinase 2 is lower and APC-PCI higher in patients with larger AAA, but the relevance of the markers for AAA growth is far from clarified.
Deep venous thrombosis (DVT) is much less common in the upper than in the lower extremity. Furthermore, there is limited information on risk factors for and the prognosis of upper extremity (UE)DVT in the general population.
To estimate incidence, risk factors, and prognosis in UEDVT.
Among a total of 1203 patients with venous thromboembolism (VTE) diagnosed during 1998-2006 in the prospective population-based Malmö thrombophilia study, 63 (5%, 33 men [52%, age 54+/-17years], and 30 women [48%, age 55+/-22years]) had UEDVT and were evaluated concerning risk factors, treatment, recurrent VTE, and mortality.
At diagnosis, 19(30%) patients had known malignancy and 6(10%) had VTE heredity. Among female UEDVT patients 4(13%) used hormone therapy, 1(3%) was pregnant, while none was in the postpartum period. Of all 63 UEDVT patients, 12(19%) were heterozygous, and 3(5%) homozygous for the Factor V Leiden (FVL)-mutation. Two (3%) patients were heterozygous for the prothrombin mutation, and 1 patient (1.6%) showed both heterozygous FVL-mutation and lupus anticoagulant antibodies. Phlebography had been used for diagnosis in 48(76%), ultrasonography in 16(25%), and computer tomography (CT) in 9(14%) patients. Twenty-two patients (35%) were treated in hospital, and the remaining 41(65%) as out-patients. Sixty-two (98%) was treated with low molecular weight heparin (LMH), 60(95%) with oral anticoagulants (OAC), 3(5%) with unfractionated heparin, and 3(5%) with thrombolysis. VTE recurrence rate during median 62 (range 31-117) month of follow-up was 8/63(13%). Fifteen (24%) UEDVT patients died during follow-up; 9(47%) of the 19 patients with known malignancy at diagnosis and 6(14%) of the other patients. Yearly incidence of UEDVT was 3.6/100.000 (95% confidence interval [CI], 3.3 - 4.03).
Malignancies and the FVL mutation were common among patients with UEDVT. Mortality during follow-up vas high.
The aim of this study was to evaluate whether screening for abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) has led to a decrease in ruptured AAA (rAAA) incidence.
The Malmö population was evaluated regarding the incidence of rAAA and elective AAA surgery 4 years before and after start of AAA-screening in 2010. Data from 1971 to 1986 (J Vasc Surg 18:74-80, 1993) and 2000-2004 (J Vasc Surg 44:237-43, 2006), enabled analysis of trends over time.
Analysis of time-periods 1971-1986, 2000-2004, 2006-2010 and 2010-2014 showed an incidence of rAAA of 5.6 (4.9-6.3), 10.6 (8.9-12.4), 6.1 (4.6-7.6) and 4.0 (2.9-5.1), respectively. In men aged 60-69 years the incidences were 16.0 (10.7-21.3), 45.6 (27.7-63.4), 19.3 (9.2-35.3) and 8.9 (2.8-20.6), respectively. The incidences of elective AAA surgery in men aged 60-69 years were 22.9 (16.5-29.2), 34.6 (19.1-50.2), 9.7 (1.2-18.5) and 44.2 (27.0-61.6), respectively.
A decrease in incidence of rAAA in men was evident before the implementation of screening. We were yet not able to demonstrate a certain reduction in rAAA incidence after the start of screening.
It has recently been reported that women treated with low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) during pregnancy had 3 h shorter duration of delivery. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether LMWH (dalteparin) affects labour. From January 1996 to December 2005, 217 consecutive pregnancies, out of 34 216 newborn (prevalence 0.6%) that were given thromboprophylaxis with dalteparin (usually 5,000 IU once daily). These 217 consecutive pregnancies were compared to an unselected control group (n = 1,499) of gravidae. Main outcome was time in first and second stage of labour and gestational age at delivery. Among nulliparous women, there were significantly fewer women with prolonged first stage of labour as compared to controls (4.1% vs. 8.5%, P = 0.047). In addition, the duration of first stage of labour was 1 h shorter among those treated with LMWH (5.2 vs. 6.2 h, P = 0.06). There were no such differences among parous women. The risk of prematurity, profuse blood loss, and postpartum anaemia was almost doubled among those treated with LMWH (11.5% vs. 5.9%, P = 0.002, 10.6% vs. 5.9%, P
AIMS: While right intracardiac thrombosis (IT) is a potential cause of pulmonary embolism (PE) similar to that of stroke in left-sided IT, its prevalence and prognostic significance has not been studied in the general population. The aim of this study was to assess the age- and gender-specific prevalence of IT and its relation to PE in a population-based autopsy cohort. METHODS AND RESULTS: Between 1970 and 1982, 23 796 autopsies, representing 84% of all in-hospital deaths in the Malmö city population, were performed, using a standardized procedure. The relationship between IT and PE was evaluated by cohort analyses and nested case-control studies. IT was present in 1706 (7.2%) patients, 727 and 747 of whom had right and left atrial IT, respectively. PE prevalence in patients with isolated left IT, isolated right IT, and combined IT was 28.5, 35.6, and 48.9%, with RR (95% CI) of 1.5 (1.3-1.8), 2.0 (1.6-2.5), and 3.5 (2.7-4.7), respectively, compared with age- and gender-matched controls. Patients dying from ischaemic heart disease had a 3.2 (2.7-3.6) times higher risk of right IT, which was associated with 43% PE prevalence. Of all patients with PE at autopsy, right IT was found in 354 (6.5%), and the only detected source of PE in 220 (4.0%). CONCLUSION: Right cardiac thrombosis, though difficult to assess clinically, is as common as left cardiac thrombosis and is associated with an increased risk of PE. The diagnosis should be considered in all cases of PE, especially in patients with atrial fibrillation or myocardial infarction and in the absence of confirmed deep vein thrombosis.
This study reports the early and midterm to long-term experience of chimney grafts (CGs) in urgent endovascular repair of complex lesions in the thoracic aorta.
Twenty-nine high-risk patients (20 men) who were unfit for open repair were treated using CG technique for ruptured (n = 14) or symptomatic (n = 15) aortic lesions engaging the aortic arch itself (n = 9), the descending aorta (n = 10), or the thoracoabdominal aorta (n = 10). Twenty-two patients (76%) were treated urgently (=24 hours) and seven were semiurgent (=3 days). Of 41 chimneys used, 24 were placed in supra-aortic branches and 17 in visceral branches. Median follow-up (interquartile range) for the entire cohort was 2 years (0.6-3.8 years), 2.5 years (1-4 years) for 30-day survivors, and 3.5 years (1.9-6.4 years) for those who were still alive.
Four patients (14%) died =30 days of cerebral infarction (n = 1), visceral ischemia secondary to the initial rupture (n = 1), multiple organ failure (n = 1), or heart failure (n = 1). There were 11 late deaths (38%); however, only two deaths were related to the CG technique. The primary and secondary technical success rates were 86% (25 of 29) and 97% (28 of 29), respectively. The secondary patency rate of CGs was 98%. Seventeen (68%) of the aortic lesions shrank significantly. Three patients (10%) had primary type I endoleak and another three (10%) had secondary type I endoleak. The endoleaks were managed with Onyx (ev3 Endovascular, Inc, Plymouth, Minn) or coil embolization (n = 2), restenting (n = 1), and conversion to open repair (n = 2). One secondary endoleak is still under observation after >20 months. All primary endoleaks and one secondary endoleak originated from CGs in the brachiocephalic trunk (4 of 6 [67%]).
The midterm to long-term results of the CG technique for urgent and complex lesions of the thoracic aorta in high-risk patients are promising, with low early mortality and long durability of the CGs. More patients with longer follow-up are still needed.