Listeria monocytogenes was isolated from critical control points in a Danish turkey processing plant, from turkey products and from cases of human listeriosis. During processing in the plant the prevalence of L. monocytogenes ranged from 25.9 to 41.4%. Cleaning and disinfection decreased the prevalence to 6.4%. Isolates of L. monocytogenes were characterized by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) using restriction endonuclease ApaI. Identical DNA types were obtained from turkey products and the processing line even after cleaning and disinfection. Two identical DNA types were demonstrated among isolates from turkey products and human cases of listeriosis. The prevalence of L. monocytogenes in turkey products ranged from 7.3 to 17.4% for ready-to-eat products and raw products, respectively. Since none of the 27 flocks examined before slaughter sampled positive for L. monocytogenes and the prevalence increased during processing, the potential risk from turkey meat was apparently due to factory hygiene rather than intrinsic contamination of the turkeys.
Cystic fibrosis (CF) patients often suffer from Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infection yet the source of this organism is not known. In order to determine whether CF patients might be contaminated with P. aeruginosa from dental equipment, a total of 103 water samples from 25 dental sessions in Frederiksberg Municipal Oral Health Care Service were examined. Three samples (2.9%) were positive for P. aeruginosa. Three hundred and twenty-seven water samples from 82 dental sessions from various other Municipal Oral Health Services in Denmark, attended by CF patients, were also examined. Eighteen of 327 samples (5.5%) from nine sessions (11%) were positive for P. aeruginosa. In one case, genotypically identical (RFLP, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis) P. aeruginosa strains were found both in water from the dental equipment and in the CF patients sputum. This indicates a small risk for acquiring P. aeruginosa from dental sessions, which is however equal to the yearly 'natural background' incidence (1-2%) of acquisition of P. aeruginosa in our CF centre.
In order to identify the possible reservoirs and routes of cross-infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa, samples were collected during a six-week period in autumn 1992 from patients, their visiting parents, staff and the inanimate environment of the Danish Cystic Fibrosis (CF) Centre and from a control ward with common paediatric diseases. All the P. aeruginosa strains were phage typed and serotyped. From 240 CF patients, 310 strains of P. aeruginosa were isolated, and of these 283 (91.3%) belonged to the polyagglutinable phenotype, most often with a short phage type (31/188 or 109). P. aeruginosa was isolated from only six (0.6%) of 1000 swabs taken from the environment. These six environmental strains and 20 P. aeruginosa strains from CF patients with identical serotype and phage type were examined with pulsed field gel electrophoresis. None of the patients harboured strains similar to the environmental strains, indicating the present isolation procedure and hygienic precautions were effective in our CF centre, and prevented contamination of the environment with P. aeruginosa.
Burkholderia cepacia isolates from nine of the ten Danish cystic fibrosis (CF) patients known between 1975 and the present day to carry this organism were investigated. Eight distinct genotypes were found with polymerase chain reaction ribotyping and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. The results indicate that there is little patient-to-patient cross-infection with Burkholderia cepacia within the Danish CF population, even though the majority of patients attend the same CF clinic on a regular basis.
OBJECTIVES: Typing of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates from Norwegian cystic fibrosis (CF) patients with chronic Pseudomonas lung infection in order to see whether cross-infection might have occurred. METHODS: Isolates from 60 patients were collected during the years 1994-98, and typed by pulsed field gel electrophoresis. RESULTS: Seventy-one strains were identified. One large cluster of identical strains included 27 patients, and 13 smaller clusters of 2-4 patients were found (26 patients). Seven patients had a strain not shared by other patients (private strains). Harboring the main cluster strain was significantly associated with participation in summer camps and training courses (P = 0.004, chi-squared test). There were no associations with regular admissions to hospital (intravenous antibiotic courses) or smaller social gatherings of short duration. Small clusters and private strains were not associated with any of the risk factors. All strains were sensitive to colistin. The minimal inhibitory concentrations were generally lower in Norwegian P. aeruginosa strains compared with isolates from Danish patients. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that cross-infection with P. aeruginosa between cystic fibrosis patients has occurred.