The goal of this study was to assess the immunophenotype of uniformly treated cases of pediatric large-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) to determine the prognostic importance of B-cell and T-cell lineages and of CD30 positivity.
Sixty-nine patients were analyzed by immunochemistry. All patients were classified histologically, staged in a uniform manner, and treated according to one of two protocols for localized (stage I and II) NHL or advanced (stage III and IV) large-cell NHL. Antibodies included anti-CD45, CD20, CD45Ra, MB-2 (not clustered), CD3, CD45Ro, CD43, CD15, CD30, and CD68. Statistical analysis used the exact conditional chi 2 and Kruskall-Wallace tests for clinical features and the log-rank test to evaluate event-free survival (EFS).
Immunophenotypic results demonstrated 25 B-cell, 23 T-cell, and 21 indeterminate lineage. Twenty-seven patients expressed CD30 (17 T-cell and 10 indeterminate lineage), and of these, 22 showed histology of anaplastic large-cell lymphoma (ALCL). B-cell patients were older (P = .018) and showed more favorable survival than patients with T-cell or indeterminate lineage (96% EFS at 3 years, 96% v 67% and 74%, B v T and indeterminate lineage [P = .027]). B-cell lineage was seen more frequently in limited-stage patients, but was also associated with favorable survival when stratified for stage (P = .036). CD30 expression (P = .96) and ALCL histology (P = .90) did not show significant associations with survival.
We conclude that among pediatric large-cell lymphomas, B-cell lineage is proportionately less frequent than in adults and CD30 antigen-expressing lymphomas are frequent among patients with T-cell and indeterminate lineage. B-cell phenotype tends to occur in older children and is associated with superior survival.
The current growth in end-stage kidney disease populations has led to increased efforts to understand the impact of status at dialysis initiation on long-term outcomes. Our main objective was to improve the understanding of current Canadian nephrology practice between October 1998 and December 1999.
Fifteen nephrology centers in 7 provinces participated in a prospective data collection survey. The main outcome of interest was the clinical status at dialysis initiation determined by: residual kidney function, preparedness for chronic dialysis as measured by presence or absence of permanent peritoneal or hemodialysis access, hemoglobin and serum albumin. Uremic symptoms at dialysis initiation were also recorded, however, in some cases these symptom data were obtained retrospectively.
Data on 251 patients during 1-month periods were collected. Patients commenced dialysis at mean calculated creatinine clearance levels of approximately 10 ml/min, with an average of 3 symptoms. 35% of patients starting dialysis had been known to nephrologists for less than 3 months. These patients are more likely to commence without permanent access and with lower hemoglobin and albumin levels. Even of those known to nephrologists, only 66% had permanent access in place.
Patients commencing dialysis in Canada appear to be doing so in relative concordance with published guidelines with respect to timing of initiation. Despite an increased awareness of kidney disease, a substantial number of patients continues to commence dialysis without previous care by a nephrologist. Of those who are seen by nephrologists, clinical and laboratory parameters are suboptimal according to current guidelines. This survey serves as an important baseline for future comparisons after the implementation of educational strategies for referring physicians and nephrologists.
We describe the prevalence of doctor-diagnosed arthritis and its impact on activities, work, and joint pain for 6 racial/ethnic groups: non-Hispanic whites, non-Hispanic blacks, Hispanics, American Indians/Alaska Natives, Asians and Pacific Islanders, and multiracial or "other" respondents. We combined data from the 2002, 2003, and 2006 National Health Interview Survey (n = 85,784) and, after adjusting for age, sex, and body mass index, compared racial/ethnic differences. Arthritis-attributable activity limitation, arthritis-attributable work limitation, and severe joint pain were higher for non-Hispanic blacks, Hispanics, and multiracial or other respondents with arthritis compared with non-Hispanic whites with arthritis. Our finding that arthritis disproportionately affects certain racial/ethnic minorities may be useful for planning interventions.
To develop a strategy to assess the quality of neonatal transport based on change in neonatal condition during transport.
The Canadian Transport Risk Index of Physiologic Stability (TRIPS) score was optimized for a California (Ca) population using data collected on 21 279 acute neonatal transports, 2007 to 2009, using models predicting (2/3) and validating (1/3) mortality within 7 days of transport. Quality Change Point 10th percentile (QCP10), a benchmark of the greatest deterioration seen in 10% of the transports by top-performing teams, was established.
Compared with perinatal variables (0.79), the Ca-TRIPS had a validation receiver operator characteristic area for prediction of death of 0.88 in all infants and 0.86 in infants transported after day 7. The risk of death increased 2.4-fold in infants whose deterioration exceeded the QCP10.
We present a practical, benchmarked, risk-adjusted, estimate of the quality of neonatal transport.
The mental hospitalization rates for Canadians of German, Dutch, and Scandinavian origin are significantly below the rates for Canadians generally and even for Canadians of British origin, although the latter are the more advantaged in the society. The better-than-average picture proves to derive from the males much more than from the females, which weighs against a genetic explanation, and it is unlikely to be due to differences in use of psychiatric services. Examination of rates for subcategories of the population, and a review of the literature on these and other Canadian sub-cultures, suggests that the mental health advantages experienced by these males may be due in part to family structure and in part to religious influences.
A new type of method for surveying alcoholism and alcohol-abuse was tested in a way designed to cover about 20% of adults in a town of 50 000. The method proved able to identify types of alcohol-abuser which other survey techniques have difficulty with; it made no undue demands on respondents; and it is much more economical than conventional household surveys. However, more work is still needed on it, and for certain types of information the customary self-report is still going to be required.
Intestinal morphology and function vary geographically.
These functions were assessed in asymptomatic volunteers in European, North American, Middle Eastern, Asian, African, and Caribbean countries.
Five hour urine collections were obtained from each subject following ingestion of a 100 ml iso-osmolar test solution containing 3-0-methyl-D-glucose, D-xylose, L-rhamnose, and lactulose after an overnight fast, to assess active (3-0-methyl-D-glucose) and passive (D-xylose) carrier mediated, and non-mediated (L-rhamnose) absorption capacity, as well as intestinal permeability (lactulose:rhamnose ratio).
A comparison of results for subjects from tropical countries (n=218) with those resident in the combined temperate and subtropical region (Europe, United States, Qatar) (n=224) showed significant differences. Residents in tropical areas had a higher mean lactulose:rhamnose ratio and lower mean five hour recoveries of 3-0-methyl-D-glucose, D-xylose, and L-rhamnose, indicating higher intestinal permeability and lower absorptive capacity. Investigation of visiting residents suggested that differences in intestinal permeability and absorptive capacity were related to the area of residence. Subjects from Texas and Qatar, although comprised of several ethnic groups and resident in a subtropical area, showed no significant difference from European subjects.
There are clearly demarcated variations in intestinal permeability and absorptive capacity affecting asymptomatic residents of different geographical areas which correspond with the condition described as tropical enteropathy. Results suggest the importance of environmental factors. The parameters investigated may be relevant to the predisposition of the indigenous population and travellers to diarrhoeal illness and malnutrition. Intestinal function in patients from the tropics may be difficult to interpret, but should take into account the range of values found in the asymptomatic normal population.
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