This study determined the prevalence and factors associated with hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection among men who have sex with men.
At the baseline visit of an HIV study among men who have sex with men, we asked about HBV vaccination status and tested for HBV markers.
Of 625 subjects, 48% had received at least 1 dose of HBV vaccine. Of 328 unvaccinated men, 41% had 1 or more HBV markers. HBV prevalence increased markedly with age and was associated with many sexual and drug-related behaviors. In a multivariate model, 7 variables were independently associated with HBV infection: ulcerative sexually transmitted diseases (odds ratio [OR] = 10.1; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.6, 54); injection drug use (OR = 5.2; 95% CI = 1.2, 26); gonorrhea or chlamydia (OR = 4.0; 95% CI = 1.9, 8.9); sexual partner with HIV/AIDS (OR = 3.6; 95% CI = 1.8, 7.1); 50 or more casual partners (OR = 3.4; 95% CI = 1.6, 7.1); received money for sex (OR = 3.0; 95% CI = 1.2, 7.8); and 20 or more regular partners (OR = 2.5; 95% CI = 1.1, 6.1).
In Montreal, men who have sex with men are at risk for HBV infection, but a substantial proportion remain unvaccinated; new strategies are required to improve coverage. Men who have sex with men and who have a sexually transmitted infection, especially a genito-ulcerative infection, appear to be at particularly high risk for HBV infection.
Cites: Can J Public Health. 1994 Sep-Oct;85(5):338-417804940
Cites: Sex Transm Dis. 1999 Jul;26(6):317-2410417018
To assess characteristics associated with 1) age and 2) recent unprotected anal sex with casual partners among men having sexual relations with men (MSM) participating in the Omega Cohort, Montréal, Québec, Canada.
The Omega Cohort is a study of the incidence and psychosocial determinants of HIV infection among MSM living in Montréal. MSM complete a questionnaire and are tested for HIV every 6 months.
Thirteen percent of young MSM ( or = 30 years of age, n = 455) reported recent unprotected anal sex with casual partners. The predictors of this latter behavior were: not living with a male sexual partner, unprotected anal sex with regular partner, > 5 casual partners, alcohol/drug use before anal sex, and having difficulties with procedures needed for safe sex. Among young MSM, additional predictors were: to have been living in Montreal for less than 1 year and to have exchanged money for sex. Among older MSM, additional predictors were: female sexual partners, unprotected anal sex with an HIV-infected partner, and feeling invulnerable to AIDS.
Young Omega participants do not have more risky behaviors than older participants. Some predictors of recent risk behaviors with casual partners were different between the two groups. Prevention programs should be adapted consequently.
A pilot prospective cohort study was conducted to determine delirium frequency and outcome in cancer patients consecutively hospitalized for terminal care (median stay: 12 days). Screening for delirium symptoms was performed daily, using the Confusion Rating Scale. Patients positive on screening had a diagnostic assessment within 24 hours using the Confusion Assessment Method. Monitoring of symptoms was continued until death. Eighteen (20%) of the 89 study patients were positive on screening at admission. Among the 71 patients free of delirium at admission, the incidence of confirmed delirium was 32. 8% (95% CI, 21.3-44.3%). Patients positive on screening received a higher mean equivalent parenteral daily dose of morphine than other patients (72 mg vs. 41 mg, p = 0.08). Significant symptom improvement occurred in 16 (50%) of the 32 delirious cases. Delirium is a serious and frequent complication in terminal cancer whose outcome may not be as poor as previously considered.
Phytoestrogens are increasingly incorporated into the diet of menopausal women. However, there are limited data on the efficacy of flaxseed on the consequences of estrogen deficiency in menopausal women. The purpose of the study was to assess the effects of flaxseed incorporation into the diet of healthy menopausal women. One hundred and ninety-nine menopausal women were randomly assigned to consume 40 g flaxseed/d (n = 101) or wheat germ placebo (n = 98) for 12 months. At baseline and at month 12, serum levels of lipids, bone mineral density (BMD), and menopausal symptoms were evaluated. Statistical analysis was performed under the intention to treat principle. Flaxseed reduced serum total (-0.20 +/- 0.51 mmol/liter; P = 0.012) and high-density lipoprotein (-0.08 +/- 0.24 mmol/liter; P = 0.031) cholesterol concentrations compared with wheat germ placebo. BMD did not differ significantly between the two arms. Both flaxseed and wheat germ reduced (P
To determine factors associated with hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccination status among HIV-uninfected men who have affective and sexual relations with men (MASM) in Montreal, Quebec, Canada.
The Omega Cohort is a study of the incidence and psychosocial determinants of HIV infection among MASM in Montreal. Participants complete a questionnaire and are HIV-tested every 6 months. At baseline, we also performed testing for HBV markers and collected data on HBV vaccination history.
Forty-six percent of 653 participants had received at least one dose of HBV vaccination, whereas 28% were completely vaccinated. Lack of vaccination was associated with injection drug use, having > or =20 regular lifetime partners, living outside Montreal, not having sex in bathhouses, and not having consulted a physician aware of the participant's sexual orientation. Among vaccinated MASM, incomplete vaccination was associated with having
There is a dearth of information on the HIV risk-taking behaviour of foreign-born men who have sex with men (MSM) in Canada. This study focused on identifying sexual risk behaviour among MSM who immigrated to Canada and compared them to MSM who were born in Canada. Baseline data from the Omega Cohort in Montreal and the Vanguard Project in Vancouver were combined to form four ethnicity/race analytical categories (n = 1,148): White born in Canada (WBIC), White born outside of Canada, non-White born in Canada (NBIC) and non-White born outside of Canada (NBOC). Psychological, demographic and sexual behaviour characteristics of the groups were similar except: NBOC were more likely to be unemployed, less likely to be tattooed, had fewer bisexual experiences and less likely worried of insufficient funds. WBOC were more likely to report unprotected sex with seropositives and more likely to have had unprotected sex while travelling. NBIC were more likely to have ever sold sex and to have had body piercing. WBOC are at high risk of acquiring as well as transmitting HIV. It is important to consider place of birth in addition to ethnicity when developing programmes to prevent the transmission of HIV.
About 13% of patients treated for a pharyngeal cancer suffer from a second primary cancer. Excessive consumptions of tobacco and/or alcohol are recognized as risk factors of second primary cancers in these patients. Epidemiologic studies suggest that antioxidant vitamins could have a protective effect on the occurrence of second primary cancers; however, this hypothesis should be confirmed by randomized clinical trials. A better knowledge of the risk factors of second primary cancers in patients with a pharyngeal cancer could help reducing the occurrence of second primary cancers and improving the follow-up of these patients.
The association between job strain and ambulatory blood pressure was studied among female white-collar workers.
This cross-sectional investigation studied 210 women in high- or low-strain jobs randomly selected from 3183 women of all ages, employed as white-collar workers. The women wore an ambulatory blood pressure monitor for 24 hours during a workday. Mean blood pressures were calculated. Psychological demands and decisional latitude were measured twice (14 months before and 7 days before the blood pressure measurement) with 2 scales recommended by Karasek.
Significant differences in blood pressure were found according to current job strain among the women holding a university degree. Their mean blood pressures during work were significantly higher [8.0 mm Hg (1.1 kPa) systolic and 6.4 mm Hg (0.8 kPa) diastolic blood pressure] in the high-strain group than in the low-strain group. Statistically significant elevations in blood pressure over the 24-hour period were also found for women with a university degree. Cumulative exposure to high strain over 14 months was also significantly associated with high systolic blood pressure at work, in the evening, and over a 24-hour period irrespective of other factors related to blood pressure. Among the women without a university degree, the blood pressure differences observed between the job strain groups were less than 1 mm Hg (0.1 kPa) and not statistically significant.
These results provide support for the effect of job strain on ambulatory blood pressure only among female white-collar workers holding a university degree.
To describe characteristics of men having sex with men (MSM) participating in the Omega Cohort, to describe HIV-positive participants at baseline interview, and to estimate HIV incidence.
The Omega Cohort is a study on the incidence and psychosocial determinants of HIV infection among MSM living in Montreal. MSM complete a questionnaire and are tested for HIV every six months.
During the previous six months, 31% and 12% of 810 participants (mean age = 33 years) reported unprotected anal sex with regular and casual partners, respectively. Eight participants (0.98%) were HIV-infected at baseline. HIV incidence was 0.89 per 100 person-years (7/787 person-years) [95% confidence interval: 0.36-1.83].
A significant proportion of participants reported current risk behaviours. Despite this, HIV incidence is relatively low. It is important to target MSM who do not practice safe sex and to encourage those practicing safe sex to sustain these behaviours.
To assess risk factors associated with HIV prevalence and incidence among gay and bisexual men in two prospective Canadian cohorts.
The Vanguard Project and the Omega Cohort are prospective cohort studies of gay and bisexual men ongoing in Vancouver and Montreal, respectively. For this analysis, baseline sociodemographic characteristics, sexual behavior, and substance use data from these two cohorts were combined. Assessment of risk factors for HIV seroprevalence and seroconversion were carried out using univariate and multivariate analysis.
This analysis was based on 1373 gay and bisexual men aged 16 to 30 years. Men who were HIV-seropositive at baseline (n = 48) were more likely to report living in unstable housing, to have had less than a high school education, and to have been unemployed than those who were HIV-negative (n = 1325). HIV-positive men were also more likely to report having engaged in sexual risk behavior, including having had consensual sex at a younger age, having had at least 6 partners during the previous year, ever having been involved in the sex trade, and having engaged in unprotected receptive anal intercourse. With respect to substance use, HIV-positive men were more likely to report the use of crack, cocaine, heroin, and marijuana and to use injection drugs. Similarly, men who seroconverted during the course of the studies (n = 26) were more likely to report having less than a high school education and having lived in unstable housing at baseline. Compared with HIV-negative men, men who seroconverted were more likely to report ever having been involved in the sex trade and engaging in unprotected receptive anal intercourse. Reports of cocaine use and injection drug use were also significantly higher for men who seroconverted compared with HIV-negative men.
Our data indicate that HIV-positive gay and bisexual men are more likely to be living in unstable conditions and to report more risky sexual and substance use behaviors than HIV-negative men.