Several copy number variants have been associated with neuropsychiatric disorders and these variants have been shown to also influence cognitive abilities in carriers unaffected by psychiatric disorders. Previously, we associated the 15q11.2(BP1-BP2) deletion with specific learning disabilities and a larger corpus callosum. Here we investigate, in a much larger sample, the effect of the 15q11.2(BP1-BP2) deletion on cognitive, structural and functional correlates of dyslexia and dyscalculia. We report that the deletion confers greatest risk of the combined phenotype of dyslexia and dyscalculia. We also show that the deletion associates with a smaller left fusiform gyrus. Moreover, tailored functional magnetic resonance imaging experiments using phonological lexical decision and multiplication verification tasks demonstrate altered activation in the left fusiform and the left angular gyri in carriers. Thus, by using convergent evidence from neuropsychological testing, and structural and functional neuroimaging, we show that the 15q11.2(BP1-BP2) deletion affects cognitive, structural and functional correlates of both dyslexia and dyscalculia.
Biliary tract malignancies are uncommon and few population-based studies are available.
This nationwide population-based study in Iceland included all patients diagnosed with intra- and extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma, gallbladder and ampullary cancer from 1984 to 2012. Patients were identified through the Icelandic Cancer Registry. Clinical information was obtained from patient records.
Overall 245 patients were identified: 38 had intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma, 66 extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma, 73 gallbladder cancer (GBC) and 68 ampullary cancer. Overall incidence for bile tract malignancies was 1-3 per 100,000 person-years and less than 1 by sub-type. The overall bile tract malignancies in males increased from 1.3 (95% CI 0.8-1.8) to 2.5 (1.9-3.1) per 100,000 inhabitants. The incidence of GBC among females decreased from 1.1 (0.7-1.5) to 0.5 (0.2-0.7). Surgery decreased for extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (56 to 23%, p?=?.027), ampullary cancer (80 to 48%, p?=?.03) and overall bile tract cancer (61 to 32%, p?
Limited data exist on the changes in the epidemiology of pancreatic cancer and outcomes over the last decades in population-based cohorts. We aimed to compare the incidence of pancreatic cancer, diagnostic, treatment and survival among patients diagnosed over the period 1986-2009.
A retrospective, nationwide, population-based study. All patients diagnosed with pancreatic cancer in Iceland in two periods, 1986-1997 (P1) and 1998-2009 (P2) were identified through the Icelandic Cancer Registry and relevant clinical information obtained from medical records.
A total of 645 patients were identified, 296 in P1 and 349 in P2 (NS). The incidence during P1 was 6.8 per 100,000 inhabitants and 6.2 during P2 (NS). Among biopsy-proven cancers, adenocarcinoma was diagnosed in 89% of the cases in P1 and in P2 in 93% of the cases. Overall 38 (14%) in P1 underwent resection and 22 (7%) in P2 (p?
To investigate the application of skin-to-skin care (SSC) in the Nordic countries, the existence of guidelines for SSC and the attitudes of neonatal staff towards SSC.
One questionnaire was distributed at unit level and one at staff level in all Nordic neonatal intensive care units (n = 109).
The unit questionnaire was answered by 95 (87%) units and the staff questionnaire by 1446 staff members (72%). All units offered SSC to various degrees, but guidelines only existed at 47% of them. Units in Denmark, Norway and Sweden seemed to use SSC earlier, longer and in more medically complicated situations than units in Finland and Iceland. Seventy-seven per cent of the units had private rooms where parents and infants could stay together, still the physical environment of the units limited the use of SSC. Medical risks were considered the main barrier for further implementation of SSC, while general development and early interaction were the most frequently mentioned benefits.
Skin-to-skin care is implemented in all Nordic neonatal units, but offered to various degrees, to various populations and to varying extents. Danish, Norwegian and Swedish units are offering SSC more extensively than units in Finland and Iceland.