Computer-based patient record systems have become very common in the primary health service, but their effects have seldom been documented. Three surveys were carried out in the municipality of Sør-Varanger, in 1993, 1994 and 1995, to discover how such a system has affected the running of the municipal medical centres. The most significant changes were organisational. Certain tasks changed hands, others were dispensed with, and new ones were added. Information on patients became more readily available, and services to the public were improved. Many more patients received an answer to questions concerning information in the case record, and far fewer forms had to be filled in manually. Despite this, computerisation had seemingly led to little change in effectiveness, and the total load of work remained the same. The survey also showed that simple extensions to the system could produce marked improvements.
A low-cost, general-purpose telemetry system was developed for use in rural health centres, hospitals, ambulances and clinics. It was designed to transmit a range of analogue biomedical signals using various communications media. The system was tested using different telephone systems, including mobile telephony. The results showed a maximum sample rate of 1.6 kHz using the public telephone network. With three data channels the system produced sample rates of 500 Hz at 8 bit/sample. Typical overall delay times were below 100 ms. Mobile tests showed that the GSM telephone was superior to the Nordic mobile telephone (NMT 900). In field tests, sample rates of 990 Hz were obtained using GSM telephony. Bit error rates were less than 10(-7) for all applications and high-fidelity regeneration was obtained at the receiver. The tests showed that the system was well suited for telemetry of analogue biomedical signals in a broad range of telemedicine applications.
Sexually transmitted diseases, antibodies to human immunodeficiency virus, and subsequent development of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Visitors of homosexual sauna clubs in Copenhagen: 1982-1983.
Sera from 260 men from Denmark and elsewhere attending two Copenhagen sauna clubs for homosexual men during nine months of 1982-1983 were investigated for markers for syphilis, hepatitis A and B, and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Five per cent (12 men) had active syphilis, and another 35% (92) had a history of and/or serologic markers for syphilis. Ninety-four men (36%) were positive for antibodies to hepatitis A virus, ten (4%) were positive for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), and 153 (59%) were positive for antibodies to HBsAg. Antibodies to HIV were found in 45 (20%) of the 220 men investigated for this marker. Markers for hepatitis A and B and for syphilis were more frequent in the HIV antibody-positive individuals, but the association was significant only for markers for hepatitis B (relative risk = 2.0). Thus STD markers had little predictive value for seropositivity for antibodies to HIV. Among 37 men investigated more than once, a seroconversion rate of 3% per month for antibodies to HIV was found, but this estimate must be taken with reservation. The rate of seropositivity for antibodies to HIV among men from Denmark was 23%, and three (8%) of the 40 HIV-positive Danish men developed the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) during the four years following the initial investigation. This study shows that by 1982-1983 HIV had spread considerably in the Danish high-risk group, although there were only seven reported cases of AIDS in the country at that time.
To explore variation in treatment-related-decisions for severe caries in children among dentists in the Public Dental Service (PDS) in Norway. It was also to evaluate the treatment choices in relation to the best interest of children and a child's rights to enjoy the highest standard of health care.
A pre-coded questionnaire was sent electronically to all general dental practitioners (GDPs) working in the PDS in eight counties in Norway (n = 611). The questionnaire included two case scenarios to reflect common dental conditions related to severe caries among 5-year-old children. Paediatric dentists and paediatric students were invited to validate the different treatment options. Frequency distributions and statistical analyses were carried out using Chi square statistics.
The response rate was 65% (n = 391) among the GDPs. A majority of the GDPs preferred a new appointment
with behaviour management techniques (BMT) to a child presenting pulpitis and pain. Dentists educated outside the Nordic region would use restraint more often as a treatment alternative when the child was in pain than Nordic-educated dentists (p\0.05). Dentists with less than 10 years of experience preferred BMT and sedation more often when the child was in pain than their older colleagues, who, however, preferred a waiting approach and no immediate treatment if the child was not in pain(p\0.05) [corrected].
Use of BMT and sedation is related to region of education and years of experience. Awareness of ethical principles with the child´s best interest in mind, should receive increased attention.
ErratumIn: Eur Arch Paediatr Dent. 2017 Aug 28;: PMID 28849581
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