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Alcohol use beliefs and behaviors among high school students.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature203376
Source
J Adolesc Health. 1999 Jan;24(1):48-58
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-1999
Author
L. Feldman
B. Harvey
P. Holowaty
L. Shortt
Author Affiliation
East York Health Unit, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
Source
J Adolesc Health. 1999 Jan;24(1):48-58
Date
Jan-1999
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adolescent Behavior - ethnology - psychology
Alcohol Drinking - ethnology - psychology
Attitude to Health - ethnology
Confidence Intervals
Female
Humans
Life Style - ethnology
Logistic Models
Male
Ontario - epidemiology
Parents
Questionnaires
Random Allocation
Sex Distribution
Socioeconomic Factors
Urban Population - statistics & numerical data
Abstract
To identify specific alcohol use beliefs and behaviors among local high school students; to determine whether relationships exist between alcohol use and various sociodemographic and lifestyle behaviors; and to assist in the development and implementation of alcohol abuse prevention programs.
This cross-sectional study involved the completion of a questionnaire by 1236 Grade 9-13 students (86% response rate) from 62 randomly selected classrooms in three Canadian urban schools. Data analyzed here are part of a larger lifestyle survey.
A total of 24% of students reported never having tasted alcohol, 22% have tasted alcohol but do not currently drink, 39% are current moderate drinkers, 11% are current heavy drinkers (five or more drinks on one occasion at least once a month), and 5% did not answer. Reasons stated most often for not drinking were "bad for health" and "upbringing," while reasons stated most often for drinking were "enjoy it" and "to get in a party mood." Student drinking patterns were significantly related to gender, ethnicity, grade, and the reported drinking habits of parents and friends. Older male adolescents who describe their ethnicity as Canadian are at higher risk for heavy drinking than students who are younger or female, or identify their ethnicity as European or Asian. Current heavy drinkers are at higher risk than other students for engaging in other high-risk behaviors such as drinking and driving, being a passenger in a car when the driver is intoxicated, and daily smoking.
Heavy alcohol use in adolescents remains an important community health concern. Older self-described Canadian and Canadian-born male adolescents are at higher risk for heavy drinking. Current and heavy drinking rises significantly between Grades 9 and 12. Students who drink heavily are more likely to drink and drive, to smoke daily, and to have friends and parents who drink alcohol.
PubMed ID
9890365 View in PubMed
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Case-specific colleague guidance for general practitioners' management of sickness absence.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature294916
Source
Occup Med (Lond). 2017 Dec 02; 67(8):644-647
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Dec-02-2017
Author
H P Nordhagen
S B Harvey
E O Rosvold
D Bruusgaard
R Blonk
A Mykletun
Author Affiliation
Norwegian Labor and Welfare Administration, Bergen, Norway.
Source
Occup Med (Lond). 2017 Dec 02; 67(8):644-647
Date
Dec-02-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Adult
Female
General Practitioners - utilization
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Norway
Organizational Policy
Practice Patterns, Physicians' - standards - statistics & numerical data
Sick Leave
Surveys and Questionnaires
Work Capacity Evaluation
Abstract
General practitioners (GPs) report sickness absence certification as challenging. They express need for support with functional assessment beyond guidelines and reforms. Case-specific collegial one-to-one guidance for other clinical topics has proved popular with GPs and may be an acceptable and effective way to improve GPs skills and competence in sickness absence certification.
To present a new model of case-specific colleague guidance focusing on the management of long-term sickness absence and to describe its feasibility in terms of application and reception among GPs, and also GPs' self-reports of effects on their practice.
Randomly selected GPs received case-specific collegial guidance over a 12-month period, in two Norwegian trials, delivered by former GPs employed by the social security administration. We measured reception and perceived effects by GPs' self-report and registered participation and withdrawal rates.
The participation rate (n = 165) was 94%, and no GPs withdrew during training. Among the 116 GPs responding to the survey (70%), 112 (97%; 95% CI 92-99) stated they would recommend it to their colleagues. Considerable benefit from the guidance was reported by 68 (59%; 95% CI 50-68). The GPs self-reported other effects on their sickness absence certification, specifically an increased use of part-time sickness absence (Fit-Note equivalent).
This model of case-specific colleague guidance to aid GPs' management of long-term sickness absence is feasible and was popular. This type of guidance was perceived by GPs to be somewhat beneficial and to alter their sickness absence certification behaviour, though the true impact requires further testing in controlled trials.
PubMed ID
29016957 View in PubMed
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Cigarette smoking in multicultural, urban high school students.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature197122
Source
J Adolesc Health. 2000 Oct;27(4):281-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-2000
Author
P. Holowaty
L. Feldman
B. Harvey
L. Shortt
Author Affiliation
Toronto Public Health, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
Source
J Adolesc Health. 2000 Oct;27(4):281-8
Date
Oct-2000
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adolescent Behavior
Chi-Square Distribution
Cross-Sectional Studies
Female
Humans
Logistic Models
Male
Ontario - epidemiology
Prevalence
Questionnaires
Risk factors
Smoking - ethnology
Urban Population
Abstract
To profile patterns of cigarette use among a multiethnic population of high school students, and identify important factors associated with cigarette use by ethnicity, in order to plan effective health promotion strategies.
This cross-sectional study involved the completion of a lifestyle questionnaire by 1236 Grade 9-13 students (86% response rate) from 62 randomly selected classrooms in three urban high schools in Toronto. Chi-square analysis of the association between tobacco use and other variables took account of the clustered sample using CSAMPLE in Epi Info.
The students self-identified their ethnicity as follows: 388 Canadian, 269 European, 171 East Indian, 137 Asian, 76 West Indian, and 194 "other." Students who identified themselves as Canadians were significantly more likely to be current smokers (29%) than students reporting other ethnicities (13%). There was no apparent increase in smoking rates for immigrants after 2 or more years in Canada. Current drinking, sexual activity, and especially friends smoking was most strongly associated with current smoking for most ethnic groups, although the relative importance of these variables was not identical for all groups.
Prevention programs may benefit from a focus on the influence of peer smoking and on the grouping together of lifestyle factors associated with smoking for students in all ethnic groups in this multicultural city.
PubMed ID
11008092 View in PubMed
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Common mental disorders and disability pension award: seven year follow-up of the HUSK study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature142165
Source
J Psychosom Res. 2010 Jul;69(1):59-67
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-2010
Author
Ann Kristin Knudsen
Simon Øverland
Helene Flood Aakvaag
Samuel B Harvey
Matthew Hotopf
Arnstein Mykletun
Author Affiliation
Research Section of Mental Health Epidemiology, Department of Health Promotion and Development, Faculty of Psychology, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway. Ann.Knudsen@psych.uib.no
Source
J Psychosom Res. 2010 Jul;69(1):59-67
Date
Jul-2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Anxiety Disorders - diagnosis - epidemiology - psychology
Cohort Studies
Comorbidity
Depressive Disorder - diagnosis - epidemiology - psychology
Disability Evaluation
Eligibility Determination
Female
Humans
Insurance, Disability - statistics & numerical data
Male
Mental Disorders - diagnosis - epidemiology - psychology
Norway
Pensions - statistics & numerical data
Sick Role
Abstract
Rates of disability pension (DP) awards remain high in most developed countries. We aimed to estimate the impact of anxiety and depression on DPs awarded both for mental and for physical diagnoses and to estimate the relative contribution of sub case-level anxiety and depression compared with case-level symptom loads.
Information from a large cohort study on mental and physical health in individuals aged 40-46 (N=15,288) was linked to a comprehensive national database of disability benefits. Case-level and sub case-level anxiety and depression were defined as scores on the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale of >or=8 and 5-7, respectively. The outcome was incident award of a DP (including ICD-10 diagnosis) during 1-7-year follow-up.
DP awards for all diagnoses were predicted both from case-level anxiety [HR 1.90 (95% CI 1.50-2.41)], case-level depression [HR 2.44 (95% CI 1.65-3.59] and comorbid anxiety and depression [HR 4.92 (95% CI 3.94-6.15)] at baseline. These effects were only partly accounted for by adjusting for baseline somatic symptoms and diagnoses. Anxiety and depression also predicted awards for physical diagnoses [HR 3.26 (95% CI 2.46-4.32)]. The population attributable fractions (PAF) of sub case-level anxiety and depression symptom loads were comparable to those from case-level symptom loads (PAF anxiety 0.07 versus 0.11, PAF depression 0.05 versus 0.06).
The long-term occupational impact of symptoms of anxiety and depression is currently being underestimated. Sub case-level symptom loads of anxiety and depression make an important and previously unmeasured contribution to DP awards.
PubMed ID
20630264 View in PubMed
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Common mental disorders and long-term sickness absence in a general working population. The Hordaland Health Study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature122775
Source
Acta Psychiatr Scand. 2013 Apr;127(4):287-97
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2013
Author
A K Knudsen
S B Harvey
A. Mykletun
S. Øverland
Author Affiliation
Department of Health Promotion and Development, Faculty of Psychology, University of Bergen, Norway. ann.knudsen@psych.uib.no
Source
Acta Psychiatr Scand. 2013 Apr;127(4):287-97
Date
Apr-2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Anxiety Disorders - epidemiology - psychology
Cohort Studies
Comorbidity
Depressive Disorder - epidemiology - psychology
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Humans
Logistic Models
Male
Middle Aged
Norway - epidemiology
Proportional Hazards Models
Prospective Studies
Risk factors
Sick Leave - statistics & numerical data
Time Factors
Abstract
To examine and compare the prospective effect of the common mental disorders (CMD) anxiety and depression on duration and recurrence of sickness absence (SA), and to investigate whether the effect of CMD on SA is detectable over time.
Information from a large epidemiological health study (N = 13 436) was linked with official records of SA episodes lasting =16 days up to 6 years after participation. Common mental disorders were assessed with the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Associations were analysed with Cox regression and multinomial logistic regression models controlling for potential covariates.
Comorbid anxiety and depression, and anxiety only were significant risk factors for SA after adjusting for covariates, whilst depression only was not. Anxiety and depression were stronger predictors for longer duration of SA episodes compared with shorter duration and associated with more frequent recurrence of SA. There was a general trend toward the effect of CMD on SA becoming weaker over time; however, the effect of anxiety only on SA remained stable throughout the follow-up.
Common mental disorders are long-lasting predictors of onset, duration and recurrence of SA. Anxiety appears to be a more important contributor to long-term SA than previously described in the literature.
Notes
Comment In: Acta Psychiatr Scand. 2013 Jul;128(1):9923438286
Comment In: Acta Psychiatr Scand. 2013 Jul;128(1):98-923438311
PubMed ID
22775341 View in PubMed
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Determining the need for hip and knee arthroplasty: the role of clinical severity and patients' preferences.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature195425
Source
Med Care. 2001 Mar;39(3):206-16
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-2001
Author
G A Hawker
J G Wright
P C Coyte
J I Williams
B. Harvey
R. Glazier
A. Wilkins
E M Badley
Author Affiliation
Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada. g.hawker@utoronto.ca
Source
Med Care. 2001 Mar;39(3):206-16
Date
Mar-2001
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Activities of Daily Living
Aged
Arthroplasty, Replacement - psychology - statistics & numerical data - utilization
Choice Behavior
Community Health Planning
Female
Geriatric Assessment
Health Care Surveys
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Needs Assessment - organization & administration
Ontario - epidemiology
Osteoarthritis, Hip - classification - epidemiology - psychology - surgery
Osteoarthritis, Knee - classification - epidemiology - psychology - surgery
Patient satisfaction
Physician's Practice Patterns - statistics & numerical data - utilization
Questionnaires
Sensitivity and specificity
Severity of Illness Index
Socioeconomic Factors
Abstract
Area variation in the use of surgical interventions such as arthroplasty is viewed as concerning and inappropriate.
To determine whether area arthroplasty rates reflect patient-related demand factors, we estimated the need for and the willingness to undergo arthroplasty in a high- and a low-use area of Ontario, Canada.
Population-based mail and telephone survey.
All adults aged > or =55 years in a high (n = 21,925) and low (n = 26,293) arthroplasty use area.
We determined arthritis severity and comorbidity with questionnaires, established the presence of arthritis with examination and radiographs, and evaluated willingness to have arthroplasty with interviews. Potential arthroplasty need was defined as severe arthritis, no absolute contraindication for surgery, and evidence of arthritis on examination and radiographs. Estimates of need were then adjusted for patients' willingness to undergo arthroplasty.
Response rates were 72.0% for questionnaires and interviews. The potential need for arthroplasty was 36.3/1,000 respondents in the high-rate area compared with 28.5/1,000 in the low-rate area (P
Notes
Comment In: Med Care. 2001 Mar;39(3):203-511242315
PubMed ID
11242316 View in PubMed
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Differences between men and women in the rate of use of hip and knee arthroplasty.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature198993
Source
N Engl J Med. 2000 Apr 6;342(14):1016-22
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-6-2000
Author
G A Hawker
J G Wright
P C Coyte
J I Williams
B. Harvey
R. Glazier
E M Badley
Author Affiliation
Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, and Women's College Hospital Campus, Sunnybrook and Women's College Health Sciences Centre, ON, Canada. g.hawker@utoronto.ca
Source
N Engl J Med. 2000 Apr 6;342(14):1016-22
Date
Apr-6-2000
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Female
Health Care Surveys
Hip Prosthesis - statistics & numerical data - utilization
Humans
Knee Prosthesis - statistics & numerical data - utilization
Male
Middle Aged
Ontario - epidemiology
Osteoarthritis - classification - epidemiology - surgery
Patient Acceptance of Health Care - statistics & numerical data
Sensitivity and specificity
Severity of Illness Index
Sex Factors
Treatment Refusal - statistics & numerical data
Abstract
Previous studies suggest that, for some conditions, women receive fewer health care interventions than men. We estimated the potential need for arthroplasty and the willingness to undergo the procedure in both men and women and examined whether there were differences between the sexes.
All 48,218 persons 55 years of age or older in two areas of Ontario, Canada, were surveyed by mail and telephone to identify those with hip or knee problems. In these subjects, we assessed the severity of arthritis and the presence of coexisting conditions by questionnaire, documented arthritis by examination and radiography, and conducted interviews to evaluate the subjects' willingness to undergo arthroplasty. The potential need for arthroplasty was defined by the presence of severe symptoms and disability, the absence of any absolute contraindications to surgery, and clinical and radiographic evidence of arthritis. The estimates of need were then adjusted for the subjects' willingness to undergo arthroplasty.
The overall response rates were at least 72 percent for the questionnaires and interviews. As compared with men, women had a higher prevalence of arthritis of the hip or knee (age-adjusted odds ratio, 1.76; P
Notes
Comment In: N Engl J Med. 2000 Apr 6;342(14):1044-510749969
PubMed ID
10749964 View in PubMed
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Effects of nitrate or nitro supplementation, with or without added chlorate, on Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium and Escherichia coli in swine feces.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature164812
Source
J Food Prot. 2007 Feb;70(2):308-15
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-2007
Author
Robin C Anderson
Yong S Jung
Christy E Oliver
Shane M Horrocks
Kenneth J Genovese
Roger B Harvey
Todd R Callaway
Thomas S Edrington
David J Nisbet
Author Affiliation
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Southern Plains Agricultural Research Center, Food and Feed Safety Research Unit, 2881 F&B Road, College Station, Texas, USA. anderson@ffsru.tamu.edu
Source
J Food Prot. 2007 Feb;70(2):308-15
Date
Feb-2007
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Chlorates - pharmacology
Colony Count, Microbial
Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
Drug Synergism
Escherichia coli - drug effects - growth & development
Feces - microbiology
Food contamination - analysis
Humans
Hydrogen-Ion Concentration
Nitrates - pharmacology
Nitro Compounds - pharmacology
Salmonella typhimurium - drug effects - growth & development
Swine
Abstract
The effects of coincubating the active agent of an experimental chlorate product with nitrate or select nitro compounds, possible inducers and competing substrates for the targeted respiratory nitrate reductase, on concentrations of experimentally inoculated Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium and indigenous Escherichia coli were determined. Studies were completed in swine fecal suspensions as a prelude to the administration of these inhibitors to pigs. Results confirmed the bactericidal effect of chlorate (5 to 10 mM) against these fecal enterobacteria, reducing (P 2 log CFU ml(-1) after 3 to 6 h of incubation. An effect (P
PubMed ID
17340863 View in PubMed
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Exercise and the Prevention of Depression: Results of the HUNT Cohort Study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature289608
Source
Am J Psychiatry. 2018 01 01; 175(1):28-36
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
01-01-2018
Author
Samuel B Harvey
Simon Øverland
Stephani L Hatch
Simon Wessely
Arnstein Mykletun
Matthew Hotopf
Author Affiliation
From King's College London, Department of Psychological Medicine, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience, London; the School of Psychiatry, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia; Black Dog Institute, Sydney, Australia; the Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway; the University of Bergen, Norway; the South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust, London; the Centre for Work and Mental Health, Nordland Hospital Trust, Bodø, Norway; and the Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway.
Source
Am J Psychiatry. 2018 01 01; 175(1):28-36
Date
01-01-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Adult
Anxiety - diagnosis - physiopathology - prevention & control - psychology
Cohort Studies
Depression - diagnosis - physiopathology - prevention & control - psychology
Exercise - psychology
Female
Health Behavior - physiology
Health status
Humans
Leisure Activities - psychology
Male
Middle Aged
Norway - epidemiology
Outcome Assessment (Health Care)
Protective factors
Psychological Tests
Socioeconomic Factors
Abstract
The purpose of the present study was to address 1) whether exercise provides protection against new-onset depression and anxiety and 2) if so, the intensity and amount of exercise required to gain protection and, lastly, 3) the mechanisms that underlie any association.
A "healthy" cohort of 33,908 adults, selected on the basis of having no symptoms of common mental disorder or limiting physical health conditions, was prospectively followed for 11 years. Validated measures of exercise, depression, anxiety, and a range of potential confounding and mediating factors were collected.
Undertaking regular leisure-time exercise was associated with reduced incidence of future depression but not anxiety. The majority of this protective effect occurred at low levels of exercise and was observed regardless of intensity. After adjustment for confounders, the population attributable fraction suggests that, assuming the relationship is causal, 12% of future cases of depression could have been prevented if all participants had engaged in at least 1 hour of physical activity each week. The social and physical health benefits of exercise explained a small proportion of the protective effect. Previously proposed biological mechanisms, such as alterations in parasympathetic vagal tone, did not appear to have a role in explaining the protection against depression.
Regular leisure-time exercise of any intensity provides protection against future depression but not anxiety. Relatively modest changes in population levels of exercise may have important public mental health benefits and prevent a substantial number of new cases of depression.
Notes
CommentIn: Am J Psychiatry. 2018 Jan 1;175(1):2-3 PMID 29301422
PubMed ID
28969440 View in PubMed
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Exercise and the Prevention of Depression: Results of the HUNT Cohort Study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature289450
Source
Am J Psychiatry. 2018 01 01; 175(1):28-36
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
01-01-2018
Author
Samuel B Harvey
Simon Øverland
Stephani L Hatch
Simon Wessely
Arnstein Mykletun
Matthew Hotopf
Author Affiliation
From King's College London, Department of Psychological Medicine, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience, London; the School of Psychiatry, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia; Black Dog Institute, Sydney, Australia; the Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway; the University of Bergen, Norway; the South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust, London; the Centre for Work and Mental Health, Nordland Hospital Trust, Bodø, Norway; and the Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway.
Source
Am J Psychiatry. 2018 01 01; 175(1):28-36
Date
01-01-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Adult
Anxiety - diagnosis - physiopathology - prevention & control - psychology
Cohort Studies
Depression - diagnosis - physiopathology - prevention & control - psychology
Exercise - psychology
Female
Health Behavior - physiology
Health status
Humans
Leisure Activities - psychology
Male
Middle Aged
Norway - epidemiology
Outcome Assessment (Health Care)
Protective factors
Psychological Tests
Socioeconomic Factors
Abstract
The purpose of the present study was to address 1) whether exercise provides protection against new-onset depression and anxiety and 2) if so, the intensity and amount of exercise required to gain protection and, lastly, 3) the mechanisms that underlie any association.
A "healthy" cohort of 33,908 adults, selected on the basis of having no symptoms of common mental disorder or limiting physical health conditions, was prospectively followed for 11 years. Validated measures of exercise, depression, anxiety, and a range of potential confounding and mediating factors were collected.
Undertaking regular leisure-time exercise was associated with reduced incidence of future depression but not anxiety. The majority of this protective effect occurred at low levels of exercise and was observed regardless of intensity. After adjustment for confounders, the population attributable fraction suggests that, assuming the relationship is causal, 12% of future cases of depression could have been prevented if all participants had engaged in at least 1 hour of physical activity each week. The social and physical health benefits of exercise explained a small proportion of the protective effect. Previously proposed biological mechanisms, such as alterations in parasympathetic vagal tone, did not appear to have a role in explaining the protection against depression.
Regular leisure-time exercise of any intensity provides protection against future depression but not anxiety. Relatively modest changes in population levels of exercise may have important public mental health benefits and prevent a substantial number of new cases of depression.
Notes
CommentIn: Am J Psychiatry. 2018 Jan 1;175(1):2-3 PMID 29301422
PubMed ID
28969440 View in PubMed
Less detail

17 records – page 1 of 2.