Existing research that examines the general problem of health facility use often lacks sound theoretical specification. This problem is partly a function of conceptual difficulties in explaining health seeking behaviour and an absence of appropriate data with which to calibrate modelling endeavours. These problems are addressed in this paper where a logit model of health seeking behaviour and health facility use derived from discrete choice theory is presented. The structure of the model is general but in this case it is developed in the context of mental health facility use. A data set from Auckland, New Zealand is utilized to apply the modelling ideas presented. Results show that discrete choice theory can be adapted to the problem of mental health facility usage under conditions where the health care system offers real choice at any given level of care. In this case real choice implies a well-developed array of alternative facilities to choose from.
The accessibility, distribution and utilisation of emergency medical services are important components of health care delivery. The impact of these services on well-being is heightened by the fact that ambulance resources must respond in a reliable and timely manner to emergency calls from demand areas. However, many factors, such as the unavailability of an ambulance at a center closest to a call, can adversely influence response time. This paper discusses the design and implementation of a framework developed in a Geographic Information System for assessing ambulance response performance. A case study of ambulance response in three communities in Southern Ontario, Canada is presented that allows easy and rapid identification of anomalous calls that may adversely affect overall operating performance evaluation. Extensions of the framework into a fully fledged service deployment and planning decision support system are discussed.
The National Minority Organ Tissue Transplant Education Program (MOTTEP) evaluated the effects of a community-implemented health education program for adult members of minority population groups to affect attitude, knowledge, and intent to change behavior. In addition, this study represents 1 of the first major initiatives to formally address prevention as a strategy to contribute to reducing the need for organ/tissue transplantation among minorities in the United States. The study targeted students (youth) and adults representing different ethnic groups (African-Americans, Alaskan Natives, Filipinos, Latinos, and Native Americans) who attended health education presentations addressing organ tissue donation, transplantation, and illness prevention in 15 different cities in churches, schools, and other sites. A cross-sectional study that used questionnaires was designed for collecting data from all participants. This article presents data on the adult sample only. Preintervention and postintervention data were collected from 914 adult participants to determine any immediate effects of the intervention. By using data from matched sets of the preintervention and postintervention questionnaires for all adult participants, there were significant increases in (P
In this research we examine self-reported social network transactions of former psychiatric inpatients residing in different types of housing in the community. Unlike earlier research, we found considerable reciprocity in network transactions with family and friends. Only professionals provided more support than they received from patients. Providing emotional support to others was positively correlated with positive affect, community integration, and mastery. Respondents reported more supportive than unsupportive transactions with network members and more supportive transactions with friends than with family or professionals. Finally, residents of supportive apartments and group homes provided and received support more frequently than residents of board-and-care homes. We discuss the results in terms of their implications for policy and future research.