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Chronic arsenicosis and cadmium exposure in wild snowshoe hares (Lepus americanus) breeding near Yellowknife, Northwest Territories (Canada), part 1: Evaluation of oxidative stress, antioxidant activities and hepatic damage.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature294571
Source
Sci Total Environ. 2018 Mar 15; 618:916-926
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Mar-15-2018
Author
S Amuno
A Jamwal
B Grahn
S Niyogi
Author Affiliation
School of Environment and Sustainability, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Canada. Electronic address: soa882@mail.usask.ca.
Source
Sci Total Environ. 2018 Mar 15; 618:916-926
Date
Mar-15-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Animals
Antioxidants - metabolism
Arsenic Poisoning - veterinary
Breeding
Cadmium - adverse effects
Environmental Exposure - adverse effects
Hares
Liver - pathology
Mining
Northwest Territories
Oxidative Stress
Abstract
Previous gold mining activities and arsenopyrite ore roasting activities at the Giant mine site (1948 to 2004) resulted in the release of high amounts of arsenic and trace metals into the terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems of Yellowknife, Northwest Territories, Canada. While elevated levels of arsenic has been consistently reported in surface soils and vegetation near the vicinity of the Giant mine area and in surrounding locations, systematic studies evaluating the overall health status of terrestrial small mammals endemic to the area are lacking. The purpose of this present study was to evaluate and comparatively assess the biochemical responses and histopathological effects induced by chronic arsenic and cadmium exposure in wild snowshoe hares breeding near the city of Yellowknife, specifically around the vicinity of the abandoned Giant mine site and in reference locations. Analysis included measurement of total arsenic and cadmium concentration in nails, livers, kidneys, bones, stomach content of hares, in addition to histopathological evaluation of hepatic and ocular lesions. Biochemical responses were determined through measurement of lipid peroxidation levels and antioxidant enzymes activities (catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione disulfide). The results revealed that arsenic concentration was 17.8 to 48.9 times higher in the stomach content, and in the range of 4 to 23 times elevated in the nails of hares from the mine area compared to the reference location. Arsenic and cadmium levels were also noted to be increased in the bones, renal and hepatic tissues of hares captured near the mine area compared to the reference site. Specifically, hares from the mine area showed nail cadmium levels that was 2.3 to 17.6 times higher than those from the reference site. Histopathological examination of the eyes revealed no specific ocular lesions, such as lens opacity (cataracts) or conjunctivitis; however, hares from both locations exhibited hepatic steatosis (fatty liver change). Lipid peroxidation levels were relatively increased and accompanied with reduced antioxidant enzyme activities in hares from the mine area compared to the hares from the reference site. The results of this preliminary study suggest that the snowshoe hares breeding near the vicinity of Yellowknife, including near the Giant mine area have been chronically exposed to elevated levels of arsenic and cadmium, which consequently led to the increased levels of oxidative stress and perturbation of antioxidant defense system in exposed animals. The results of this present study constitute the first observation of chronic arsenicosis in wild small mammal species in Canada.
PubMed ID
29037475 View in PubMed
Less detail

Chronic arsenicosis and cadmium exposure in wild snowshoe hares (Lepus americanus) breeding near Yellowknife, Northwest Territories (Canada), part 1: Evaluation of oxidative stress, antioxidant activities and hepatic damage.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature286488
Source
Sci Total Environ. 2017 Oct 13;
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-13-2017
Author
S. Amuno
A. Jamwal
B. Grahn
S. Niyogi
Source
Sci Total Environ. 2017 Oct 13;
Date
Oct-13-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Abstract
Previous gold mining activities and arsenopyrite ore roasting activities at the Giant mine site (1948 to 2004) resulted in the release of high amounts of arsenic and trace metals into the terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems of Yellowknife, Northwest Territories, Canada. While elevated levels of arsenic has been consistently reported in surface soils and vegetation near the vicinity of the Giant mine area and in surrounding locations, systematic studies evaluating the overall health status of terrestrial small mammals endemic to the area are lacking. The purpose of this present study was to evaluate and comparatively assess the biochemical responses and histopathological effects induced by chronic arsenic and cadmium exposure in wild snowshoe hares breeding near the city of Yellowknife, specifically around the vicinity of the abandoned Giant mine site and in reference locations. Analysis included measurement of total arsenic and cadmium concentration in nails, livers, kidneys, bones, stomach content of hares, in addition to histopathological evaluation of hepatic and ocular lesions. Biochemical responses were determined through measurement of lipid peroxidation levels and antioxidant enzymes activities (catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione disulfide). The results revealed that arsenic concentration was 17.8 to 48.9 times higher in the stomach content, and in the range of 4 to 23 times elevated in the nails of hares from the mine area compared to the reference location. Arsenic and cadmium levels were also noted to be increased in the bones, renal and hepatic tissues of hares captured near the mine area compared to the reference site. Specifically, hares from the mine area showed nail cadmium levels that was 2.3 to 17.6 times higher than those from the reference site. Histopathological examination of the eyes revealed no specific ocular lesions, such as lens opacity (cataracts) or conjunctivitis; however, hares from both locations exhibited hepatic steatosis (fatty liver change). Lipid peroxidation levels were relatively increased and accompanied with reduced antioxidant enzyme activities in hares from the mine area compared to the hares from the reference site. The results of this preliminary study suggest that the snowshoe hares breeding near the vicinity of Yellowknife, including near the Giant mine area have been chronically exposed to elevated levels of arsenic and cadmium, which consequently led to the increased levels of oxidative stress and perturbation of antioxidant defense system in exposed animals. The results of this present study constitute the first observation of chronic arsenicosis in wild small mammal species in Canada.
PubMed ID
29037475 View in PubMed
Less detail

Comparative study of arsenic toxicosis and ocular pathology in wild muskrats (Ondatra zibethicus) and red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus) breeding in arsenic contaminated areas of Yellowknife, Northwest Territories (Canada).

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature307019
Source
Chemosphere. 2020 Jun; 248:126011
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Jun-2020
Author
S Amuno
L Bedos
V Kodzhahinchev
K Shekh
S Niyogi
B Grahn
Author Affiliation
School of Environment and Sustainability, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Canada. Electronic address: soa882@usask.ca.
Source
Chemosphere. 2020 Jun; 248:126011
Date
Jun-2020
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Animals
Arsenic - analysis - metabolism - toxicity
Arsenic Poisoning - veterinary
Arsenic Trioxide
Arvicolinae - metabolism
Breeding
Canada
Environmental Exposure - statistics & numerical data
Environmental Pollutants - metabolism - toxicity
Gold
Northwest Territories
Sciuridae - metabolism
Soil
Abstract
The Giant Mine is an abandoned gold mine in Yellowknife, Northwest Territories, Canada. Throughout its operation from 1948 to 2004, the Giant Mine released heavy amounts of arsenic trioxide into the environment, thus contaminating the soil and surface water within and around the vicinity of the mine site. Chronic arsenic (As) poisoning negatively impacts wildlife health and can induce multi-organ damages including neurodegeneration and visual dysfunction depending on concentration and duration of exposure. The aim of the current study was to comparatively assess retina layer changes and prevalence of ocular lesions in wild rodent populations (i.e. muskrats and red squirrels) breeding in arsenic endemic areas of Yellowknife, near the vicinity of the abandoned Giant mine site (~2 km radius), at an intermediate location (approximately 20 km from the mine area) as well as a reference location (spanning 52-105 km from the city of Yellowknife, Canada). Eye globes were removed from euthanized muskrats and squirrels from the three sampling locations with increasing distance from the Giant mine area. Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) was used to attempt a pan-retinal layer assessment, and histologic examination was utilized for assessment and confirmation of ocular lesions. The retinal layers were measured and statistically compared between the groups based on sampling locations to enhance the scope of histologic evaluations. The preliminary results revealed that thicknesses of ganglion cell layer (GCL), retina nerve fibre layer (NFL), and inner retina layer (IR) were statistically reduced in the muskrats from arsenic endemic area, particularly near the vicinity of the Giant mine compared to the control group. Generalized ocular pathology was histologically confirmed in all the muskrats from the arsenic endemic areas with the manifestation of moderate to severe lymphocytic plasmacytic uveitis (LPU), keratitis and subcapsular cataracts. Inner retinal degeneration was also observed in all the muskrats from the arsenic endemic areas, while muskrats from the control group were predominantly normal. Three muskrats from the control group were noted to have a mild LPU and keratitis. Significant histopathologic changes were not detected in the squirrel eyes from the three groups except for incidental mild cornea scars from all the locations. In general, these preliminary findings confirm the presence of ocular lesions and retina abnormalities in wild muskrats in the Yellowknife area and provide the first evidence of visual dysfunction and impairment in wildlife inhabiting arsenic endemic areas of Canada.
PubMed ID
32028161 View in PubMed
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Education and benchmarking among physicians may facilitate sick-listing practice.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature132867
Source
J Occup Rehabil. 2012 Mar;22(1):78-87
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-2012
Author
A B Bremander
J. Hubertsson
I F Petersson
B. Grahn
Author Affiliation
Musculoskeletal Sciences, Department of Orthopedics, Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Lund, Sweden. ann.bremander@morse.nu
Source
J Occup Rehabil. 2012 Mar;22(1):78-87
Date
Mar-2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Benchmarking - standards
Clinical Competence
Cross-Sectional Studies
Delivery of Health Care - standards
Education, Medical, Continuing - methods
Female
Guidelines as Topic
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Physician's Practice Patterns
Physicians
Questionnaires
Regression Analysis
Sick Leave
Sweden
Work Capacity Evaluation
Abstract
Assessing work ability and sickness certification are considered problematic by many physicians and education and implementation of guidelines to improve knowledge and skills has been requested. Our aim was to study the association between such interventions and physicians' sick-listing practices.
A web-based questionnaire was sent to all physicians working in primary care, psychiatry, orthopedics/rheumatology in the southern region of Sweden before (in 2007 to 1,063 physicians) and after (in 2009 to 1,164 physicians) educational interventions in insurance medicine were offered.
With a response rate of 58%, half of the physicians (51%) reported to work at a clinic with a sick-listing policy in 2009 compared with 31% in 2007. Primary care physicians (OR 12.4) and physicians who had participated in educational interventions in insurance medicine (OR 2.4) more often had a sick-listing policy at the clinic. Physicians with a longer medical experience (OR 0.7) and those with support at the clinic (OR 0.3) and the possibility to extend time if needed (OR 0.4) were less likely to report of problematic cases while primary care physicians were (OR 2.9). On the contrary, physicians who reported to rarely have the possibility to extend time when handling problematic cases were more likely to issue a higher number of sickness certificates.
The sick-listing process is often viewed as problematic and more often by primary care physicians. Benchmarking and education in insurance medicine together with the possibility to allocate extra time if encountering problematic cases may facilitate sick-listing practice.
PubMed ID
21769594 View in PubMed
Less detail

Functional activities and psychosocial factors in the rehabilitation of patients with low back pain.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature71654
Source
Scand J Caring Sci. 2000;14(2):75-81
Publication Type
Article
Date
2000
Author
G. Gard
K A Gille
B. Grahn
Author Affiliation
Department of Musculoskeletal Disorders, Division of Physical Therapy, Lund University, Lund, Sweden. Gunvor.Gard@sjukgym.lu.se
Source
Scand J Caring Sci. 2000;14(2):75-81
Date
2000
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Activities of Daily Living
Community Health Services
Employment
Female
Humans
Low Back Pain - physiopathology - psychology - rehabilitation
Male
Pain Measurement
Posture
Sweden
Abstract
A four-week rehabilitation programme for back patients, focusing on functional activities and psychosocial factors in the demands of work and daily living, was evaluated. The programme is a combination of training of functional activities and increased psychological knowledge, body awareness and coping. A total of 40 patients with lumbago or lumbago ischias participated in the program and were compared with a matched control group. The results showed that the patients had significantly more ergonomic and psychosocial problems in their working environment than did the controls. A significant reduction in ratings of low back pain was noted in patients compared with controls after rehabilitation. Increased functional ability and physical fitness were shown in the patient group after rehabilitation. Significantly more patients than controls returned to work after the rehabilitation.
PubMed ID
12035279 View in PubMed
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Motivation as a predictor of changes in quality of life and working ability in multidisciplinary rehabilitation. A two-year follow-up of a prospective controlled study in patients with prolonged musculoskeletal disorders.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature72063
Source
Disabil Rehabil. 2000 Oct 15;22(15):639-54
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-15-2000
Author
B. Grahn
C. Ekdahl
L. Borgquist
Author Affiliation
Kronoberg Occupational Rehabilitation Service, Växjö, Sweden. birgitta.grahn@1tkronoberg.se
Source
Disabil Rehabil. 2000 Oct 15;22(15):639-54
Date
Oct-15-2000
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Case-Control Studies
Employment
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Health status
Humans
Male
Motivation
Musculoskeletal Diseases - psychology - rehabilitation
Pain Measurement
Psychophysiology
Quality of Life
Regression Analysis
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Social Class
Sweden
Abstract
PURPOSE: To evaluate the two year outcome of multidisciplinary rehabilitation for patients with prolonged musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs), in terms of health-related quality of life (HRQL) and working ability. In addition, predictors of outcome were examined. METHODS: The rehabilitation group and the matched control group comprised 122 and 114 patients respectively. Baseline data were compared with two year follow-up data within and between the groups. The variables that were measured were: HRQL (Nottingham Health Profile), motivation, body awareness, pain, pain-related medicine consumption, psychosomatic symptoms, working environment and working ability. RESULTS: Variables which improved significantly for the rehabilitation group compared with the control group were: HRQL (p = 0.049), emotional reactions (p = 0.043), pain related to movements (p = 0.028) and need for pain-related medicines (p = 0.009). Multivariate regression analysis including all patients revealed that motivation was a predictor of change in HRQL (p = 0.001) and working ability (p
PubMed ID
11087060 View in PubMed
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Work ability: concept and assessment from a physiotherapeutic perspective. An interview study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature129605
Source
Physiother Theory Pract. 2012 Jul;28(5):344-54
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-2012
Author
K. Stigmar
C. Ekdahl
B. Grahn
Author Affiliation
Department of Health Sciences, Division of Physiotherapy, Lund University, Lund, Sweden. kjerstin.stigmar@med.lu.se
Source
Physiother Theory Pract. 2012 Jul;28(5):344-54
Date
Jul-2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Attitude of Health Personnel
Clinical Competence
Cooperative Behavior
Female
Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice
Humans
Interdisciplinary Communication
Interviews as Topic
Male
Middle Aged
Perception
Physical Therapists - psychology
Physical Therapy Modalities
Predictive value of tests
Professional Role
Qualitative Research
Sick Leave
Sweden
Task Performance and Analysis
Time Factors
Work Capacity Evaluation
Workplace
Abstract
The aim of this study was to ascertain experiences and perceptions among physiotherapists (PTs) in Sweden regarding the concept of work ability as well as their perspectives of their professional role in work ability assessments. We conducted an in-depth interview study with four male and twelve female physiotherapists working in the field of occupational health care, orthopaedics, primary health care or rehabilitation. Qualitative content analysis was applied to the data. Work ability was perceived as the ability to perform work tasks as requested. Having the potential to adjust at work and to allocate resources, having an attachment to the workplace and time factors were vital. The physiotherapists were striving for a well-defined role within a multiprofessional team, where work ability assessments were performed in a real work environment. The PTs experienced contradictory roles in relation to the patient but believed they could contribute with valuable material for assessments; this professional help was not always requested. It was noted that there was a need for experience and further education to enable PTs to further engage in work ability assessments. It is important to improve collaboration and to further discuss the work ability concept from the viewpoints of different professionals.
PubMed ID
22087705 View in PubMed
Less detail

7 records – page 1 of 1.