The aim of the study was to analyse effects of various innovative forms of school education on the health status and functional abilities of children and adolescents. Enhanced academic loads are shown to be the most unfavourable factor of the school environment. The main consequences of excess teaching load are shortened motor and outdoor activities of the children, smaller duration of night sleep. Optimization of academic routine (alternation of studies and holidays), modular structure of school calendar might help to reduce fatigue during school hours. Hygienic estimates of different variants of specialized education are obtained. Scientifically sound hygienic requirements are proposed to be applied to the organization of academic activities in a new type of educational institutions, full-day schools.
Physiological and hygienic studies under the conditions of a natural hygienic experiment were conducted to examine different variants of the organization of work of new types of general educational establishments--full-day schools. Over 580 pupils from 5 full-day schools were followed up. Organization of teaching children at full-day schools was found to mainly correspond to the age-related capabilities of pupils from primary and secondary classes. Of vital importance for maintenance of mental performance, good emotional and psychosomatic states are the organization of the intraschool environment, including a school plot, as well as the conditions for realization of additional education, motor activity of children, and recess. Health keeping in pupils from full-day schools is favored by the reduction in the duration of lessons to 35 minutes and day sleep for first-form children, the decrease in the number of pupils in a class, outdoor physical exercises in the middle of a school day (a primary school) and strolls after lessons, three meals a day, balanced additional education, medicopsychological accompaniment, optimization of studies and rest in children during a school year.
Proceeding from the analysis and statistical processing of the data derived during the study of health dynamics of junior schoolchildren, who studied during an academic year under the conditions of different air exchange regimes (20 and 40 m3 of air per hr/child), it was established that indoor air medium formed by air supply of 40 m3 per hr/child (compared to 20 m3) even during a year had a favorable impact on the functional state of some body systems and prevalence of acute diseases among schoolchildren.