Estimates of the direct costs of mental health services for patients with schizophrenia are made from a registration of all patients seen during a period of 4 weeks in all treatment units serving 6 catchment areas. The estimates were based on unit costs. The total direct costs of mental health services for schizophrenic patients in Norway were estimated to be NOK 1158 million (US$ 164 million). In total, 74.3% of the costs are for long-term in-patient care, 19.7% are for acute and intermediate length in-patient care, and 6.0% are for out-patient and day care. The average costs of schizophrenic patients with a GAF score of 1-20 are almost twice those of patients with a GAF score of 21-40, and more than three times those of patients with a GAF score of 41-60.
To describe 1-year outcome in a large clinical epidemiologic sample of first-episode psychosis and its predictors.
A total of 301 patients with first-episode psychosis from four healthcare sectors in Norway and Denmark receiving common assessments and standardized treatment were evaluated at baseline, at 3 months, and at 1 year.
Substantial clinical and social improvements occurred within the first 3 months. At 1-year 66% were in remission, 11% in relapse, and 23% continuously psychotic. Female gender and better premorbid functioning were predictive of less severe negative symptoms. Shorter DUP was predictive for shorter time to remission, stable remission, less severe positive symptoms, and better social functioning. Female gender, better premorbid social functioning and more education also contributed to a better social functioning.
This first-episode sample, being well treated, may be typical of the early course of schizophrenia in contemporary centers.
OBJECTIVE: Impaired executive functioning (EF) has often been reported in patients with major depression or schizophrenia. We hypothesize that the variance in EF is more affected by level of general psychopathology than by diagnosis. METHOD: Forty-three patients with major depression and 47 with schizophrenia were included. EF was measured with Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, Stroop Colour Word Test, Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test, Digits Backwards and Controlled Oral Word Association Test. The level of general psychopathology was measured with Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale - Expanded and Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, the General psychopathology subscale. RESULTS: The level of general psychopathology predicted more of the variance in EF than diagnosis. In multivariate analyses, the effect of general psychopathology on EF was more robust for adjustment for diagnosis than vice versa. CONCLUSION: Future research on cognitive functioning in psychiatric patients should include level of general psychopathology to avoid overemphasising effects of diagnoses.
To see, if voluntary admission for treatment in first-episode psychosis results in better adherence to treatment and more favourable outcome than involuntary admission.
We compared consecutively first-admitted, hospitalised patients from a voluntary (n = 91) with an involuntary (n = 126) group as to psychopathology and functioning using Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale and Global Assessment of Functioning Scales at baseline, after 3 months and at 2 year follow-up. Moreover, duration of supportive psychotherapy, medication and number of hospitalisations during the 2 years were measured.
More women than men were admitted involuntarily. Voluntary patients had less psychopathology and better functioning than involuntary patients at baseline. No significant difference as to duration of psychotherapy and medication between groups was found. No significant difference was found as to psychopathology and functioning between voluntarily and involuntarily admitted patients at follow-up.
Legal admission status per se did not seem to influence treatment adherence and outcome.
During the last decades we have seen a new focus on early treatment of psychosis. Several reviews have shown that duration of untreated psychosis (DUP) is correlated to better outcome. However, it is still unknown whether early treatment will lead to a better long-term outcome. This study reports the effects of reducing DUP on 5-year course and outcome.
During 1997-2000 a total of 281 consecutive patients aged >17 years with first episode non-affective psychosis were recruited, of which 192 participated in the 5-year follow-up. A comprehensive early detection (ED) programme with public information campaigns and low-threshold psychosis detection teams was established in one healthcare area (ED-area), but not in a comparable area (no-ED area). Both areas ran equivalent treatment programmes during the first 2 years and need-adapted treatment thereafter.
At the start of treatment, ED-patients had shorter DUP and less symptoms than no-ED-patients. There were no significant differences in treatment (psychotherapy and medication) for the 5 years. Mixed-effects modelling showed better scores for the ED group on the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale negative, depressive and cognitive factors and for global assessment of functioning for social functioning at 5-year follow-up. The ED group also had more contacts with friends. Regression analysis did not find that these differences could be explained by confounders.
Early treatment had positive effects on clinical and functional status at 5-year follow-up in first episode psychosis.
To identify predictors of non-remission in first-episode, non-affective psychosis.
During 4 years, we recruited 301 patients consecutively. Information about first remission at 3 months was available for 299 and at 2 years for 293 cases. Symptomatic and social outcomes were assessed at 3 months, 1 and 2 years.
One hundred and twenty-nine patients (43%) remained psychotic at 3 months and 48 patients (16.4%) remained psychotic over 2 years. When we compared premorbid and baseline data for the three groups, the non-remitted (n = 48), remitted for