Penis carcinoma morbidity in the city of Moscow in 1973-1979 was 0.5 per 100,000 of male population, most of the patients being older than 60 years. On primary application, stage I of the disease was identified in 17.5%; stage II -- 42.9%; stage III -- 34.9% and stage IV in 4.7% of patients. Therefore, advanced tumors were found in 39.6% of patients. Combined treatment was given to 31.6%, radiation alone -- 37.5%, surgery -- 21.3% and symptomatic therapy -- 7.4% of cases. Three patients refused to take therapy.
The results of 5-year screening (1996-2000) for prostatic cancer in 1129 males 40 to 80 years of age are presented. The examination included: measurement of blood levels of prostate-specific antigen (PSA), finger rectal examination, transrectal ultrasonic examination (TRUE) and, on demand, biopsy of the prostatic gland. Prostatic cancer was diagnosed in 1.5, 2.2 and 16% patients having PSA levels of 0-4.0, 4.0-10.0 and 10.0-30.0% ng/ml, respectively. At finger rectal examination prostatic cancer was suspected in 8% examinees, only in 33% of them the diagnosis was verified morphologically. By TRUE evidence 7% examinees were suspected and in 44.3% of them prostatic cancer was confirmed. Thus, biopsy proved necessary in 172 cases of 1129 examinees. In 64 (5.7%) males prostatic cancer was diagnosed and confirmed. Early prostatic cancer in the screened men and those consulted in the outpatient department of the National Cancer Research Center was detected in 77.7 and 22% men, respectively. The conclusion is made that men over 50 years of age should undergo prophylactic examination of the prostatic gland once a year.
The trends in male urinary and genital cancer morbidity and mortality are specified. Statistics on separate malignant urological diseases are provided. In 1996 the number of patients with cancer of male urinary and sex organs reached 31.700. A growth in morbidity was due rather to a higher risk to develop the disease than because of changes in the population age. Urological cancer reduces mean life span of Russian population by 2 months, and the patients' life terminates 10-19 years earlier. Financial losses due to deaths of urological cancer stand as high as 197 million roubles as estimated in 1990 prices.
Incidence rate of male urogenital cancer has increased for 1975-1993 by 138.7% reaching 27,700. The disease-specific trends in prevalence, morbidity and mortality are outlined. The rise in urogenital cancer incidence is attributed to higher risk to develop the disease rather than to growing percentage of the elderly among overall population. Mean lifespan of Russian population due to urological cancer mortality is cut by 2 months. Fatal cases live by 11-19 years less than healthy subjects. Economical losses because of deaths of urological cancer make up 187.3 million rubles in 1990 prices.
101 patients with cancer of the bladder were operated in the Moscow Cancer Research Center from 1990 to 1995. Cystectomy with varying urinary bypass was made in 49 patients. 52 patients were subjected to bladder resection. The former developed recurrences in 28.9%, the latter in 62% of the patients. Recurrences after the resections were primarily local. 5-year survival of transient-cell bladder carcinoma patients after cystectomy made up 68.2%, after the resection 80.7%. The authors hold that both operations are applicable, but they have specific indications.
The USSR statistics on malignant neoplastic diseases of the urinary system and male sexual organs which comprised 5.7 per cent in the total mortality was presented for the first time. More than a 50 per cent increment in the death rate from these tumors was documented between 1975 and 1987. Annually, prostatic carcinoma is diagnosed in almost 10 thousand patients and cancer of the urinary bladder in 15 thousand patients. Maximal prevalence of the disease has been recorded in the Baltic republics, the Ukraine and Byelorussia. The detection rate of the aforementioned diseases, Stages I-II, is about 40 per cent. The estimate revealed that the total number of the registered oncological patients was 100 thousand persons. The problems in organization of the oncological care system, material and technical supplies and professional training should be considered.