Department of Health Policy, Management and Evaluation, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, 2nd Floor McMurrich Building, 12 Queen's Park Crescent West, Toronto, Ont., Canada M5S 1A8. firstname.lastname@example.org
In this paper, we apply the standard model used in the income strand of the socio-economic status (SES)-population health literature to explain the relationship between mortality and income to pooled cross-section time-series data for Canada. The use of time-series data increases the available degrees of freedom and allows for the possibility that the effects of inequality take time to translate into poorer health outcomes. In light of recent criticisms of aggregate level studies, we do not attempt to differentiate between the absolute and relative inequality hypotheses, but test for the existence of a relationship between mortality and a measure of income inequality. We find that whether an exogenous trend is incorporated or an auto-regressive distributed lag form is used, the coefficients on mean income and the Gini are not significantly different from zero, which contradicts the findings in other parts of the literature, but which is consistent with earlier cross-section evidence for Canada. The results suggest that models that focus exclusively on income as a measure of the impact of SES on mortality are not complete and that health spending and unemployment may be even more important than income growth and dispersion.
Chiropractic is one of the most frequently sought nonphysician provider groups. Despite its apparent recognition, the profession faces numerous challenges, including the economic reality of an increasing supply within a market of questionable demand. This paper evaluates the chiropractic manpower status in Ontario, Canada.
Data collected from administrative and education databases, insurance billing data, and population health survey data between 1990 and 2004 were analyzed.
Between 1990 and 2004, the total number of chiropractic registrants in Ontario doubled, with an average annual rate of growth of about 5.4%; however, recent data suggest that the number of nonpracticing chiropractors is increasing, whereas the number of new registrants is decreasing. The rate of applications to a chiropractic institution rose sharply and peaked in 1996-1997, thereafter declining but leveling off in 2002-2003. Despite the continued growth in the number of practicing chiropractors, the utilization of chiropractic services among the Ontario population has remained relatively stable, resulting in a decline in the average net annual incomes adjusted for inflation to 2002 dollars.
Our results support previous reports projecting an oversupply of chiropractors and suggest that the chiropractic profession in Ontario is in long-run oversupply. Competition from other providers, changing population demographics, and the recent loss of public funding for services may present significant future challenges to current practitioners. Opportunities related to participation in multidisciplinary environments and accessing unmet population health needs may contribute to influencing the demand for chiropractic services. A concerted effort by professional and educational institutions is required.
Department of Health Policy, Management and Evaluation, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto McMurrich Building, 2nd Floor, 12 Queen's Park Crescent, Toronto, ON, M5S 1A8, Canada. email@example.com
We provide descriptive statistics for data collected via the Residential Care Facilities Survey (RCFS), from long-term care (LTC) facilities operating in Ontario between 1996 and 2002. The LTC sector in Ontario is dominated by large, proprietary for-profit facilities. The proportion of residents receiving extended care has increased from 53 per cent in 1996 to over 61 per cent in 2002. Government-owned facilities are significantly larger than both for-profit proprietary facilities and lay non-profit facilities. Religious and lay non-profit facilities provide care to more residents 85 years of age and older than do for-profit and government-owned facilities, while government-owned facilities provide care to a greater proportion of higher needs residents. Government-owned facilities have higher nursing intensity levels and higher direct care staffing levels than other ownership types, while for-profit facilities have significantly lower levels than other facility types. Non-profit operators have higher ratios of administrative to care staff than proprietary and government-owned facilities.
The time path of consumption from a rational addiction (RA) model contains information about an individual's tendency to be forward looking. In this paper, we use quantile regression (QR) techniques to investigate whether the tendency to be forward looking varies systematically with the level of consumption of cigarettes. Using panel data, we find that the forward-looking effect is strongest relative to the addiction effect in the lower quantiles of cigarette consumption, and that the forward-looking effect declines and the addiction effect increases as we move toward the upper quantiles. The results indicate that QR can be used to illuminate the heterogeneity in individuals' tendency to be forward looking even after controlling for factors such as education. QR also gives useful information about the differential impact of policy variables, most notably workplace smoking restrictions, on light and heavy smokers.
This paper examines relationships between aging, social capital, and healthcare utilization. Cross-sectional data from the 2001 Canadian Community Health Survey and the Canadian Census are used to estimate a two-part model for both GP physicians (visits) and hospitalization (annual nights) focusing on the impact of community- (CSC) and individual-level social capital (ISC). Quantile regressions were also performed for GP visits. CSC is measured using the Petris Social Capital Index (PSCI) based on employment levels in religious and community-based organizations [NAICS 813XX] and ISC is based on self-reported connectedness to community. A higher CSC/lower ISC is associated with a lower propensity for GP visits/higher propensity for hospital utilization among seniors. The part-two (intensity model) results indicated that a one standard deviation increase (0.13%) in the PSCI index leads to an overall 5% decrease in GP visits and an annual offset in Canada of approximately $225 M. The ISC impact was smaller; however, neither measure was significant in the hospital intensity models. ISC mainly impacted the lower quantiles in which there was a positive association with GP utilization, while the impact of CSC was strongest in the middle quantiles. Each form of social capital likely operates through a different mechanism: ISC perhaps serves an enabling role by improving access (e.g. transportation services), while CSC serves to obviate some physician visits that may involve counseling/caring services most important to seniors. Policy implications of these results are discussed herein.
We examine the relationship between social capital, community size and GP visits, and conceptualize social capital as a stock variable measured at a prior point in time.
Data from the 2002 Canadian Community Health Survey and the 2001 Canadian Census are merged with GP visit data from the Ontario Health Ministry. Negative binomial regression is used to measure the impact of community-level (CSC) and individual-level social capital (ISC) on GP visits. CSC is measured with the Petris Index using employment levels in religious and community-based organizations, and ISC is measured along multiple dimensions.
The effect of social capital varies by community size. A one standard deviation increase in the Petris Index in larger communities (population>100,000) leads to a 2.6% decrease in GP visits with an annual offset in public spending of $66.4M. Tangible social support-a measure of ISC-also exhibited large effects on GP visits. In smaller communities (population 10,000-100,000), only increased ISC exhibited an impact on GP visits. Age had no effect on the association between social capital and GP visits.
Each form of social capital likely operates through different mechanisms and impact differs by community size. Stronger CSC likely obviates some physician visits in larger communities that involve counseling/caring services while some forms of ISC may act similarly in smaller communities.
Depression is a major public health concern that results in a wide range of economic costs to people, their families, and the health care system. Our study sought to determine the direct medical costs incurred by the Ontario government owing to cessation of antidepressant therapy during pregnancy.
We conducted an economic evaluation by making assumptions based on data obtained from Statistics Canada, federal and provincial government reports, and relevant depression literature. The analysis included the number of pregnant women with depression residing in Ontario and, subsequently, the number of those women who experienced depressive relapse during pregnancy owing to discontinuation of antidepressant medication. The cost of physician services, hospitalizations, and the birth of preterm and low birth weight infants (2 adverse outcomes associated with untreated depression during pregnancy) were also taken into consideration.
An estimated 2953 pregnant women with depression in Ontario annually discontinue antidepressant therapy and subsequently have a depressive relapse. An estimated $20 546 982 is spent annually in Ontario on untreated maternal depression in pregnancy; this is the total after subtracting the cost of risks associated with treated depression during pregnancy ($3 144 053).
Safe treatment options for the management of depression during pregnancy should be actively explored as treated depression translates into cost savings for the Ontario government and society as a whole. Beyond this cost, depression interferes with the quality of childrearing, maternal responsiveness to infants, and other determinants essential for optimal child development.
A choice-theoretic model of household decision-making with respect to care-giving time allocations and the use of publicly and privately financed home care services are proposed. Predictions concerning the effect of increased availability of publicly financed home care services on home care utilization, informal care giving, and health status are derived. These predictions are assessed through use of Canadian inter-provincial survey data on home care use and care giving that are matched with data on home care funding for the period 1992-1998. Increased availability of publicly financed home care is associated with an increase in its utilization, a decline in informal care giving, and an improvement in self-reported health status.
The present quantitative study evaluates the degree to which socioeconomic status (SES), as opposed to perceived need, determines utilisation of publicly funded home care in Ontario, Canada. The Registered Persons Data Base of the Ontario Health Insurance Plan was used to identify the age, sex and place of residence for all Ontarians who had coverage for the complete calendar year 1998. Utilisation was characterised in two dimensions: (1) propensity - the probability that an individual received service, which was estimated using a multinomial logit equation; and (2) intensity - the amount of service received, conditional on receipt. Short- and long-term service intensity were modelled separately using ordinary least squares regression. Age, sex and co-morbidity were the best predictors (P
Like in many other high-income jurisdictions, the public drug program in Ontario, Canada provides comprehensive coverage of prescription drugs to the 65 years and older population with some cost sharing. The objective of this study was to examine the marginal impact of holding private drug coverage on the use of publicly funded medicines among the senior population in Ontario.
We drew on linked survey and administrative data sources to examine the impact of private drug coverage first on total spending and utilization of medications, and second, on clinically recommended medications for individuals with a diagnosis of diabetes.
Approximately 27% of Ontario seniors reported having private prescription drug insurance from a current or prior employer. The population-level analysis of all seniors found that individuals with private insurance coverage, on average, took about a quarter of an additional drug and incurred 16% more in costs to the public program in a year compared to those without additional coverage. The disease-specific analysis of seniors with a diagnosis of diabetes found that private coverage was associated with two-fold higher odds of taking an anti-hypertensive drug, but it had no association with the use of statins or anti-diabetic medications.
The results of this study provide some evidence that seniors in Ontario are sensitive to the price of drugs. These findings raise equity concerns relating to the cost sharing arrangements in the public system and our policy of allowing private plans to "top-up" the public plan.