Changes in demographical and clinical features of treatment-seeking pathological gamblers, and their gambling preferences before and after the ban of slot machines in Norway from 1 July 2007. Is there an emergence of a new group of gamblers seeking treatment after the ban? The participants were 99 patients, 16 women and 83 men, with the mean age of 35 years. All were referred to the Bergen Clinics Foundation, Norway, for treatment of gambling addiction in the period October 2006 to October 2009. A comprehensive assessment package was applied, focusing on demographical characteristics, the severity of pathological gambling, mental health and substance use disorder. After the ban the mean age was significantly lower, and significantly more were highly educated, in regular employment, and married. Internet gambling and a sport betting game called Odds were the most common options, and gambling problems had become more severe with greater depth due to gambling, bad conscious, heavy alcohol consumption, and more suicidal thoughts and attempts. After the ban of slot machines, the characteristics of treatment-seeking gamblers have been changed, and with great implications for treatment strategies.
This paper presents the organisation, progression, and main findings from a community-based substance use prevention project in five municipalities in western Norway. At the central level, this project was organised with a steering committee and a principal project leader, who is situated at the Department of Health and Social Welfare at the county level. Locally, the way of organizing differed, as one would expect from the community-based model. Top-down/bottom-up strategies can apply both in the way a community organises its efforts, as well as in the relationship between the central project organisation and the participating local communities. It is argued that it can be beneficial for the success of community action programs if one attains a "good mix" between top-down and bottom-up strategies. Factors of importance for such "mix" in the Hordaland project were that the municipalities applied for participation, the availability of economic funding, the venues for meetings between central and local project management, the position of local coordinators, the possibilities for coupling project work to otherwise existing community planning, and the extent of formal bureaucracy.
OBJECTIVE: The ability of motivational structure and other variables to predict alcohol consumption was assessed in university students (N = 370; 244 women) in the Czech Republic, The Netherlands, Norway and the United States. METHOD: Motivational structure was assessed with the Motivational Structure Questionnaire (MSQ), which inquires about respondents' individual personal concerns in various areas of life and dimensions of their goal strivings related to the resolution of concerns. Alcohol-related problems were measured with the Short Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test. RESULTS: Factor analysis of MSQ indices yielded a two-factor solution, one factor of which reflects an adaptive motivational structure marked by elements necessary for attaining psychologically satisfying resolutions of personal concerns. The other factor reflects a more maladaptive motivational structure marked by feelings of indifference about the achievement of personal goals. As hypothesized, MSQ Factor I was a significant inverse predictor of the amount of alcohol that students drank, but only among those who experienced alcohol-related problems. CONCLUSIONS: The similarity in results across culturally varied samples suggests the robustness of the relationships for understanding the motivational bases for alcohol use.