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Adolescent mental health and earnings inequalities in adulthood: evidence from the Young-HUNT Study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature289695
Source
J Epidemiol Community Health. 2017 Feb; 71(2):201-206
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Feb-2017
Author
Miriam Evensen
Torkild Hovde Lyngstad
Ole Melkevik
Anne Reneflot
Arnstein Mykletun
Author Affiliation
Division of Mental Health, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway.
Source
J Epidemiol Community Health. 2017 Feb; 71(2):201-206
Date
Feb-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adolescent health
Adult
Employment - statistics & numerical data
Female
Humans
Male
Mental Disorders - epidemiology
Norway - epidemiology
Registries
Risk factors
Surveys and Questionnaires
Abstract
Previous studies have shown that adolescent mental health problems are associated with lower employment probabilities and risk of unemployment. The evidence on how earnings are affected is much weaker, and few have addressed whether any association reflects unobserved characteristics and whether the consequences of mental health problems vary across the earnings distribution.
A population-based Norwegian health survey linked to administrative registry data (N=7885) was used to estimate how adolescents' mental health problems (separate indicators of internalising, conduct, and attention problems and total sum scores) affect earnings (=30 years) in young adulthood. We used linear regression with fixed-effects models comparing either students within schools or siblings within families. Unconditional quantile regressions were used to explore differentials across the earnings distribution.
Mental health problems in adolescence reduce average earnings in adulthood, and associations are robust to control for observed family background and school fixed effects. For some, but not all mental health problems, associations are also robust in sibling fixed-effects models, where all stable family factors are controlled. Further, we found much larger earnings loss below the 25th centile.
Adolescent mental health problems reduce adult earnings, especially among individuals in the lower tail of the earnings distribution. Preventing mental health problems in adolescence may increase future earnings.
PubMed ID
27531845 View in PubMed
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Adolescent mental health and earnings inequalities in adulthood: evidence from the Young-HUNT Study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature289537
Source
J Epidemiol Community Health. 2017 Feb; 71(2):201-206
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Feb-2017
Author
Miriam Evensen
Torkild Hovde Lyngstad
Ole Melkevik
Anne Reneflot
Arnstein Mykletun
Author Affiliation
Division of Mental Health, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway.
Source
J Epidemiol Community Health. 2017 Feb; 71(2):201-206
Date
Feb-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adolescent health
Adult
Employment - statistics & numerical data
Female
Humans
Male
Mental Disorders - epidemiology
Norway - epidemiology
Registries
Risk factors
Surveys and Questionnaires
Abstract
Previous studies have shown that adolescent mental health problems are associated with lower employment probabilities and risk of unemployment. The evidence on how earnings are affected is much weaker, and few have addressed whether any association reflects unobserved characteristics and whether the consequences of mental health problems vary across the earnings distribution.
A population-based Norwegian health survey linked to administrative registry data (N=7885) was used to estimate how adolescents' mental health problems (separate indicators of internalising, conduct, and attention problems and total sum scores) affect earnings (=30 years) in young adulthood. We used linear regression with fixed-effects models comparing either students within schools or siblings within families. Unconditional quantile regressions were used to explore differentials across the earnings distribution.
Mental health problems in adolescence reduce average earnings in adulthood, and associations are robust to control for observed family background and school fixed effects. For some, but not all mental health problems, associations are also robust in sibling fixed-effects models, where all stable family factors are controlled. Further, we found much larger earnings loss below the 25th centile.
Adolescent mental health problems reduce adult earnings, especially among individuals in the lower tail of the earnings distribution. Preventing mental health problems in adolescence may increase future earnings.
PubMed ID
27531845 View in PubMed
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Alcohol consumption, problem drinking, abstention and disability pension award. The Nord-Tr√łndelag Health Study (HUNT).

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature133418
Source
Addiction. 2012 Jan;107(1):98-108
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-2012
Author
Jens Christoffer Skogen
Ann Kristin Knudsen
Arnstein Mykletun
Sverre Nesvåg
Simon Øverland
Author Affiliation
Research Centre for Health Promotion, Faculty of Psychology, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway.
Source
Addiction. 2012 Jan;107(1):98-108
Date
Jan-2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Alcohol drinking - epidemiology
Alcoholism - epidemiology
Chronic Disease
Confounding Factors (Epidemiology)
Disabled persons - statistics & numerical data
Female
Health Behavior
Health status
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Norway - epidemiology
Pensions - statistics & numerical data
Retirement - statistics & numerical data
Sick Leave - statistics & numerical data
Social Class
Social Security - statistics & numerical data
Temperance - statistics & numerical data
Young Adult
Abstract
To examine associations of abstention, alcohol consumption and problem drinking with subsequent disability pensioning (DP), and whether previous excessive consumption ('sick-quitting') could explain some of the increased risk for DP among abstainers.
Prospective population-based study.
Data were from two waves of the Nord-Tr?ndelag Health Study (HUNT) linked with the national insurance database. The two main analyses included 37,729 (alcohol consumption) and 34,666 (problem drinking) participants.
Alcohol consumption was measured by self-reported consumption, while problem drinking was assessed by the Cut down, Annoyed, Guilt, Eye-opener (CAGE) questionnaire. Information on subsequent DP, including diagnosis for which the DP was awarded, was gathered from the national insurance database. Covariates included somatic illness and symptoms, mental health, health-related behaviour, socio-economic status and social activity.
Those reporting the highest level of alcohol consumption were not at increased risk for DP [hazard ratio (HR) 1.12, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.92-1.38], whereas problem drinking was a strong predictor (HR 2.79, 95% CI: 2.08-3.75) compared to their corresponding reference groups. Alcohol abstainers were also at increased risk for DP, but among them, the previous consumers (HR 1.95, 95% CI: 1.48-2.57) and previous excessive consumers (HR 1.67, 95% CI: 1.01-2.74) were at higher risk for DP than constant abstainers.
Problem drinking is linked to subsequent requirement for a disability pension but mere alcohol consumption is not. This is partly explained by 'sick-quitting'.
PubMed ID
21707810 View in PubMed
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Anxiety and depression in individuals with somatic health problems. The Nord-Tr√łndelag Health Study (HUNT).

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature45879
Source
Scand J Prim Health Care. 2003 Sep;21(3):136-41
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-2003
Author
Eystein Stordal
Ingvar Bjelland
Alv A Dahl
Arnstein Mykletun
Author Affiliation
Department of Psychiatry, Hospital Namsos, Namsos, Norway. eystein.stordal@hnt.no
Source
Scand J Prim Health Care. 2003 Sep;21(3):136-41
Date
Sep-2003
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Anxiety Disorders - complications - epidemiology
Chi-Square Distribution
Cross-Sectional Studies
Depressive Disorder - complications - epidemiology
Female
Humans
Logistic Models
Male
Middle Aged
Norway - epidemiology
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Somatoform Disorders - complications - epidemiology
Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To examine the relationship between anxiety disorders and depression and various somatic health problems in the general population. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study with survey methods and clinical examinations. SETTING: The Health Study of Nord-Trøndelag, Norway (the HUNT study). PARTICIPANTS: 60869 individuals aged 20-89 years. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Anxiety disorder, depression and their comorbidity are categorized based on scores on the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. All somatic health variables are self-reported, while blood pressure, height and weight are measured. Multivariate nominal logistic regression analyses are used to investigate the relationship between somatic variables and the anxiety/depression categories. RESULTS: Most somatic health variables show a stronger association with comorbid anxiety disorder/depression than with anxiety disorder or depression alone. About one-third of individuals reporting somatic health problems also have anxiety disorder and/or depression. CONCLUSION: Somatic health problems carry a high risk of both anxiety disorder and depression. Active identification and treatment of these co-occurring mental disorders are of practical importance.
PubMed ID
14531503 View in PubMed
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Assessment of male sexual function by the Brief Sexual Function Inventory.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature74876
Source
BJU Int. 2006 Feb;97(2):316-23
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-2006
Author
Arnstein Mykletun
Alv A Dahl
Michael P O'Leary
Sophie D Fosså
Author Affiliation
Research Centre for Health Promotion, University of Bergen, 5015 Bergen, Norway.
Source
BJU Int. 2006 Feb;97(2):316-23
Date
Feb-2006
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Coitus
Ejaculation
Health Surveys
Humans
Libido
Male
Middle Aged
Norway
Penile Erection
Personal Satisfaction
Questionnaires
Reference Values
Sexual Behavior
Sexual Partners
Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To present normative data from Norway using the Brief Male Sexual Function Inventory (BSFI, the first patient self-administered questionnaire to assess male sexuality, and used in the USA) in men aged 20-79 years, examine the psychometric properties of the BSFI, explore the impact of sexual function and other variables on overall sexual satisfaction, and compare American and Norwegian normative data. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: From public official address lists 3500 men aged 20-79 years were invited to take part in an anonymous questionnaire study, including the BSFI. Altogether 1185 (34%) responded, and the response rates varied with age. RESULTS: There was increasingly reduced sexual function concerning drive, erection, ejaculation, and problem assessment with age, and most of the age-effect started at >50 years old. Overall sexual satisfaction followed the same trend, but with a weaker association with age. Analyses of factor structure and internal consistency of the BSFI supported a one-factor solution with good internal consistency. Drive, erection, ejaculation, and problem assessment explained 28% of the variance in overall sexual satisfaction. Being younger and having a sexual partner were also associated with high scores of overall sexual satisfaction. American and Norwegian normative data in the BSFI dimensions were markedly similar. CONCLUSION: The BSFI is a short and discrete screening tool for sexual function, and for most clinical and research purposes we recommend using the BSFI as a one-dimensional scale.
PubMed ID
16430637 View in PubMed
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The association between anxiety, depression, and somatic symptoms in a large population: the HUNT-II study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature45749
Source
Psychosom Med. 2004 Nov-Dec;66(6):845-51
Publication Type
Article
Author
Tone Tangen Haug
Arnstein Mykletun
Alv A Dahl
Author Affiliation
Department of Psychiatry, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen 5021, Norway. tone.haug@psyk.uib.no
Source
Psychosom Med. 2004 Nov-Dec;66(6):845-51
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Age Factors
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Anxiety Disorders - diagnosis - epidemiology
Comorbidity
Data Collection
Depressive Disorder - diagnosis - epidemiology
Female
Health status
Humans
Life Style
Male
Middle Aged
Norway - epidemiology
Prevalence
Psychiatric Status Rating Scales
Questionnaires
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Sex Factors
Somatoform Disorders - diagnosis - epidemiology
Abstract
OBJECTIVE: Somatic symptoms are prevalent in the community, but at least one third of the symptoms lack organic explanation. Patients with such symptoms have a tendency to overuse the health care system with frequent consultations and have a high degree of disability and sickness compensation. Studies from clinical samples have shown that anxiety and depression are prevalent in such functional conditions. The aim of this study is to examine the connection between anxiety, depression, and functional somatic symptoms in a large community sample. METHOD: The HUNT-II study invited all inhabitants aged 20 years and above in Nord-Trondelag County of Norway to have their health examined and sent a questionnaire asking about physical symptoms, demographic factors, lifestyle, and somatic diseases. Anxiety and depression were recorded by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Of those invited, 62,651 participants (71.3%) filled in the questionnaire. A total of 10,492 people were excluded due to organic diseases, and 50,377 were taken into the analyses. RESULTS: Women reported more somatic symptoms than men (mean number of symptoms women/men: 3.8/2.9). There was a strong association between anxiety, depression, and functional somatic symptoms. The association was equally strong for anxiety and depression, and a somewhat stronger association was observed for comorbid anxiety and depression. The association of anxiety, depression, and functional somatic symptoms was equally strong in men and women (mean number of somatic symptoms men/women in anxiety: 4.5/5.9, in depression: 4.6/5.9, in comorbid anxiety and depression: 6.1/7.6, and in no anxiety or depression: 2.6/3.6) and in all age groups. The association between number of somatic symptoms and the total score on Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale was linear. CONCLUSION: There was a statistically significant relationship between anxiety, depression, and functional somatic symptoms, independent of age and gender.
PubMed ID
15564348 View in PubMed
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The association between depression, anxiety, and cognitive function in the elderly general population--the Hordaland Health Study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature45650
Source
Int J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2005 Oct;20(10):989-97
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-2005
Author
Eva Biringer
Arnstein Mykletun
Alv A Dahl
A David Smith
Knut Engedal
Harald A Nygaard
Anders Lund
Author Affiliation
Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Bergen, Norway. eva.biringer@psyk.uib.no
Source
Int J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2005 Oct;20(10):989-97
Date
Oct-2005
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Anxiety - epidemiology - psychology
Cognition Disorders - epidemiology - psychology
Comorbidity
Depression - epidemiology - psychology
Female
Humans
Male
Neuropsychological Tests
Norway - epidemiology
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Sex Distribution
Abstract
OBJECTIVES: To examine the association between depression and/or anxiety and cognitive function in the elderly general population. SUBJECTS: Non-demented participants from the general population (n = 1,930) aged 72-74 years. METHODS: Symptoms and caseness of depression and anxiety disorder were assessed using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Cognitive function was assessed by the Digit Symbol Test (modified version), the Kendrick Object Learning Test, and the 'S'-task from the Controlled Oral Word Association Test. RESULTS: There was a significant association between depression and reduced cognitive function. The inverse association between anxiety and reduced cognitive performance was explained by adjustment for co-morbid depression. The inverse association between depressive symptoms and cognitive function was found to be close to linear, and was also present in the sub-clinical symptom range. Males were more affected cognitively by depressive symptoms than females. CONCLUSION: The inverse association between depression and cognitive function is not only a finding restricted to severely ill patient samples, but it can also be found in the elderly general population.
PubMed ID
16163751 View in PubMed
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The association between habitual diet quality and the common mental disorders in community-dwelling adults: the Hordaland Health study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature133326
Source
Psychosom Med. 2011 Jul-Aug;73(6):483-90
Publication Type
Article
Author
Felice N Jacka
Arnstein Mykletun
Michael Berk
Ingvar Bjelland
Grethe S Tell
Author Affiliation
Department of Clinical and Biomedical Sciences, The University of Melbourne, Barwon Health, Geelong, Australia. felice@barwonhealth.org.au
Source
Psychosom Med. 2011 Jul-Aug;73(6):483-90
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Anxiety - epidemiology
Cross-Sectional Studies
Depression - epidemiology
Diet - statistics & numerical data
Exercise
Female
Food Habits - psychology
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Norway - epidemiology
Psychiatric Status Rating Scales
Questionnaires
Sex Factors
Socioeconomic Factors
Abstract
Recent evidence suggests a role for diet quality in the common mental disorders depression and anxiety. We aimed to investigate the association between diet quality, dietary patterns, and the common mental disorders in Norwegian adults.
This cross-sectional study included 5731 population-based men and women aged 46 to 49 and 70 to 74 years. Habitual diet was assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire, and mental health was measured using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale.
After adjustments for variables including age, education, income, physical activity, smoking, and alcohol consumption, an a priori healthy diet quality score was inversely related to depression (odds ratio [OR] = 0.71, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.59-0.84) and anxiety (OR = 0.77, 95% CI = 0.68-0.87) in women and to depression (OR = 0.83, 95% CI = 0.70-0.99) in men. Women scoring higher on a healthy dietary pattern were less likely to be depressed (OR = 0.68, 95% CI = 0.57-0.82) or anxious (OR = 0.87, 95% CI = 0.77-0.98), whereas men were more likely to be anxious (OR = 1.19, 95% CI = 1.03-1.38). A traditional Norwegian dietary pattern was also associated with reduced depression in women (OR = 0.77, 95% CI = 0.64-0.92) and anxiety in men (OR = 0.77, 95% CI = 0.61-0.96). A western-type diet was associated with increased anxiety in men (OR = 1.27, 95% CI = 1.14-1.42) and women (OR = 1.29, 95% CI = 1.17-1.43) before final adjustment for energy intake.
In this study, those with better quality diets were less likely to be depressed, whereas a higher intake of processed and unhealthy foods was associated with increased anxiety.
PubMed ID
21715296 View in PubMed
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Associations between delayed completion of high school and educational attainment and symptom levels of anxiety and depression in adulthood.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature277624
Source
BMC Psychiatry. 2016 Mar 15;16:64
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-15-2016
Author
Ole Melkevik
Lars Johan Hauge
Pernille Bendtsen
Anne Reneflot
Arnstein Mykletun
Leif Edvard Aarø
Source
BMC Psychiatry. 2016 Mar 15;16:64
Date
Mar-15-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Achievement
Adult
Anxiety Disorders - epidemiology - psychology
Depressive Disorder - epidemiology - psychology
Educational Status
Female
Health Surveys - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Linear Models
Male
Norway - epidemiology
Prevalence
Prospective Studies
Abstract
There is a higher prevalence of anxiety and depression among adults with lower educational attainment. Delayed completion of high school (HS) is common and represents a potentially complicating factor in the relationship between educational attainment and anxiety and depression. This study aims to investigate whether delayed HS completion is associated with symptom levels of anxiety and depression in adulthood and whether it interacts with later educational attainment in predicting symptom-levels of anxiety and depression in adulthood.
The sample consisted of 10 149 participants from the Nord-Trøndelag Health Survey (HUNT 3) between 30 and 46 years of age in 2006. The outcome variables were symptoms of anxiety and depression as measured by the HADS scale. Variables measuring educational attainment were obtained from the National Educational Database in Norway. We used linear regression to estimate associations between educational attainment, delayed HS completion and symptom levels of anxiety and depression in adulthood.
We found delayed HS completion to be associated with higher symptom levels of both anxiety and depression. There was a dose-response association suggesting that each additional year of delay in HS was associated with higher symptom levels for both anxiety and depression. Mean symptom levels of both anxiety and depression were significantly lower among individuals who completed HS within a normative timeframe vs those who were substantially delayed in their HS completion. For anxiety symptoms, we found a statistically significant interaction between delayed HS completion and later educational attainment. This interaction suggested that individuals with a combination of being delayed in HS and having no higher educational attainment had significantly higher levels of anxiety symptoms than all other combinations of later educational attainment and normative/delayed HS completion. For depression, associations between predictors and symptom levels were additive.
Delayed HS completion is associated with symptom levels of both depression and anxiety and interacts with later educational attainment in predicting symptom levels of anxiety. Individuals with a combination of delayed HS completion and lower educational attainment had particularly high symptom levels of anxiety.
Notes
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PubMed ID
26980092 View in PubMed
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The bidirectional association between depression and insomnia: the HUNT study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature121774
Source
Psychosom Med. 2012 Sep;74(7):758-65
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-2012
Author
Børge Sivertsen
Paula Salo
Arnstein Mykletun
Mari Hysing
Ståle Pallesen
Steinar Krokstad
Inger Hilde Nordhus
Simon Øverland
Author Affiliation
Division of Mental Health, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Christiesgt 13, 5020 Bergen, Norway. borge.sivertsen@fhi.no
Source
Psychosom Med. 2012 Sep;74(7):758-65
Date
Sep-2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Comorbidity
Depression - epidemiology
Depressive Disorder - epidemiology
Female
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Norway - epidemiology
Odds Ratio
Prospective Studies
Questionnaires
Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders - epidemiology
Time Factors
Abstract
Depression and insomnia are closely linked, yet our understanding of their prospective relationships remains limited. The aim of the current study was to investigate the directionality of association between depression and insomnia.
Data were collected from a prospective population-based study comprising the most recent waves of the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (HUNT) (the HUNT2 in 1995-1997 and the HUNT3 in 2006-2008). A total of 24,715 persons provided valid responses on the relevant questionnaires from both surveys. Study outcomes were onset of depression or insomnia at HUNT3 in persons not reporting the other disorder in HUNT2.
Both insomnia and depression significantly predicted the onset of the other disorder. Participants who did not have depression in HUNT2 but who had insomnia in both HUNT2 and HUNT3 had an odds ratio (OR) of 6.2 of developing depression at HUNT3. Participants who did not have insomnia in HUNT2 but who had depression in both HUNT2 and HUNT3 had an OR of 6.7 of developing insomnia at HUNT3. ORs were only slightly attenuated when adjusting for potential confounding factors.
The results support a bidirectional relationship between insomnia and depression. This finding stands in contrast to the previous studies, which have mainly focused on insomnia as a risk factor for the onset of depression.
PubMed ID
22879427 View in PubMed
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49 records – page 1 of 5.