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Academic achievement and smoking: is self-efficacy an important factor in understanding social inequalities in Finnish adolescents?

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature131629
Source
Scand J Public Health. 2011 Nov;39(7):714-22
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-2011
Author
Marjaana Pennanen
Ari Haukkala
Hein De Vries
Erkki Vartiainen
Author Affiliation
National Institute for Health and Welfare, Finland, Department of Public Health, University of Helsinki, Finland. marjaana.pennanen@thl.fi
Source
Scand J Public Health. 2011 Nov;39(7):714-22
Date
Nov-2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Achievement
Adolescent
Adolescent Behavior
Attitude
Cognition
Educational Status
Female
Finland
Health Status Disparities
Humans
Longitudinal Studies
Male
Questionnaires
Self Efficacy
Smoking - adverse effects - prevention & control - psychology
Socioeconomic Factors
Abstract
Poor academic achievement is strongly related to smoking but studies that examine the mechanism between academic achievement and smoking are lacking. The aim of this study, therefore, was to examine the smoking-related cognitions (i.e. attitude, social influence, self-efficacy and intention to smoke) in relation to academic achievement and determine whether these cognitions explain different patterns of smoking.
The study uses the data of a longitudinal study that was carried out in Finland, and the sample comprised 1,096 students in grades seven to nine.
During the seventh-grade students with poor academic achievement reported more positive attitudes to smoking and a greater social influence of their peers regarding smoking, weaker self-efficacy to refuse smoking and more intentions to smoke in the future compared to students with high academic achievement. Moreover, the follow-up analyses after a 24-month interval revealed that self-efficacy to refuse smoking of students with poor grades had become weaker compared to students with high grades. Furthermore, the influence of seventh-grade academic achievement predicting ninth-grade weekly smoking was partially mediated through the self-efficacy beliefs and the intention to smoke.
Differences in academic achievement may have an impact on adolescents' self-efficacy beliefs and the intention to smoke in the future. To reduce health inequalities a strong input on continuing research to improve smoking prevention methods, especially for students with low academic achievement, is needed.
PubMed ID
21893606 View in PubMed
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'Let's Move It' - a school-based multilevel intervention to increase physical activity and reduce sedentary behaviour among older adolescents in vocational secondary schools: a study protocol for a cluster-randomised trial.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature285440
Source
BMC Public Health. 2016 May 27;16:451
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-27-2016
Author
Nelli Hankonen
Matti T J Heino
Vera Araujo-Soares
Falko F Sniehotta
Reijo Sund
Tommi Vasankari
Pilvikki Absetz
Katja Borodulin
Antti Uutela
Taru Lintunen
Ari Haukkala
Source
BMC Public Health. 2016 May 27;16:451
Date
May-27-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adolescent Behavior
Adolescent Health Services
Exercise
Female
Finland
Humans
Male
Motivation
Pediatric Obesity - prevention & control
Pilot Projects
School Health Services
Schools
Students - psychology
Abstract
Physical activity (PA) has been shown to decline during adolescence, and those with lower education have lower levels of activity already at this age, calling for targeted efforts for them. No previous study has demonstrated lasting effects of school-based PA interventions among older adolescents. Furthermore, these interventions have rarely targeted sedentary behaviour (SB) despite its relevance to health. The Let's Move It trial aims to evaluate the effectiveness and the cost-effectiveness of a school-based, multi-level intervention, on PA and SB, among vocational school students. We hypothesise that the intervention is effective in increasing moderate-to-vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA), particularly among those with low or moderate baseline levels, and decreasing SB among all students.
The design is a cluster-randomised parallel group trial with an internal pilot study. The trial is conducted in six vocational schools in the Helsinki Metropolitan area, Finland. The intervention is carried out in 30 intervention classes, and 27 control classes retain the standard curriculum. The randomisation occurs at school-level to avoid contamination and to aid delivery. Three of the six schools, randomly allocated, receive the 'Let's Move It' intervention which consists of 1) group sessions and poster campaign targeting students' autonomous PA motivation and self-regulation skills, 2) sitting reduction in classrooms via alterations in choice architecture and teacher behaviour, and 3) enhancement of PA opportunities in school, home and community environments. At baseline, student participants are blind to group allocation. The trial is carried out in six batches in 2015-2017, with main measurements at pre-intervention baseline, and 2-month and 14-month follow-ups. Primary outcomes are for PA, MVPA measured by accelerometry and self-report, and for SB, sedentary time and breaks in sedentary time (accelerometry). Key secondary outcomes include measured body composition, self-reported well-being, and psychological variables. Process variables include measures of psychosocial determinants of PA (e.g. autonomous motivation) and use of behaviour change techniques. Process evaluation also includes qualitative interviews. Intervention fidelity is monitored.
The study will establish whether the Let's Move It intervention is effective in increasing PA and reducing SB in vocational school students, and identify key processes explaining the results.
ISRCTN10979479 . Registered: 31.12.2015.
Notes
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PubMed ID
27229682 View in PubMed
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