Poor academic achievement is strongly related to smoking but studies that examine the mechanism between academic achievement and smoking are lacking. The aim of this study, therefore, was to examine the smoking-related cognitions (i.e. attitude, social influence, self-efficacy and intention to smoke) in relation to academic achievement and determine whether these cognitions explain different patterns of smoking.
The study uses the data of a longitudinal study that was carried out in Finland, and the sample comprised 1,096 students in grades seven to nine.
During the seventh-grade students with poor academic achievement reported more positive attitudes to smoking and a greater social influence of their peers regarding smoking, weaker self-efficacy to refuse smoking and more intentions to smoke in the future compared to students with high academic achievement. Moreover, the follow-up analyses after a 24-month interval revealed that self-efficacy to refuse smoking of students with poor grades had become weaker compared to students with high grades. Furthermore, the influence of seventh-grade academic achievement predicting ninth-grade weekly smoking was partially mediated through the self-efficacy beliefs and the intention to smoke.
Differences in academic achievement may have an impact on adolescents' self-efficacy beliefs and the intention to smoke in the future. To reduce health inequalities a strong input on continuing research to improve smoking prevention methods, especially for students with low academic achievement, is needed.
The mechanisms through which genes influence body weight are not well understood, but appetite has been implicated as one mediating pathway. Here we use data from two independent population-based Finnish cohorts (4632 adults aged 25-74 years from the DILGOM study and 1231 twin individuals aged 21-26 years from the FinnTwin12 study) to investigate whether two appetitive traits mediate the associations between known obesity-related genetic variants and adiposity. The results from structural equation modelling indicate that the effects of a polygenic risk score (90 obesity-related loci) on measured body mass index and waist circumference are partly mediated through higher levels of uncontrolled eating (ßindirect = 0.030-0.032, P
Cites: Am J Clin Nutr. 2009 Dec;90(6):1483-819828706
Cites: J Nutr. 2010 Apr;140(4):831-420181787
Cites: Int J Epidemiol. 2010 Apr;39(2):504-1819959603
Concerns about weight gain occurring after smoking cessation may affect motivation and self-efficacy towards quitting smoking. We examined associations of smoking-specific weight concerns with smoking cessation motivation and self-efficacy in a population-based cross-sectional sample of daily smokers.
Six-hundred biochemically verified (blood cotinine) current daily smokers comprising 318 men and 282 women aged 25-74 years, were studied as part of the National FINRISK (Finnish Population Survey on Risk Factors on Chronic, Noncommunicable Diseases) study and its DIetary, Lifestyle and Genetic factors in the development of Obesity and Metabolic syndrome (DILGOM) sub-study that was conducted in Finland in 2007. Self-reported scales were used to assess weight concerns, motivation and self-efficacy regarding the cessation of smoking. Multiple regression analyses of concerns about weight in relation to motivation and self-efficacy were conducted with adjustments for sex, age (years), body mass index (BMI, [kg/m(2)]), physical activity (times per week), and further controlled for nicotine dependence (Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence).
Higher levels of weight concerns were associated with lower self-efficacy (ß = -0.07, p
This study examined the impact of socioeconomic status (SES) on changes in psychological resources and whether these changes in turn moderate the effect of SES on distress symptoms in a prospective 10-year follow-up among young adults.
Subjects (N = 1239) were participants in two phases (1989, 22 years; 1999, 32 years) of a Finnish cohort study. The measurements were SES (basic education at 22 years, occupation at 32 years), distress symptoms (index of 17 somatic and mental complaints), and psychological resources (self-esteem, meaningfulness, locus of control).
The results showed that lower SES is associated with poorer psychological resources both concurrently and prospectively. Lower SES at age 22 also predicted slower resource development, but only among females. In prospective analyses among both genders, changes in psychological resources moderated the effect of SES on distress symptoms: for those with losses in psychological resources, lower SES was associated with greater increases in distress between 22 and 32 years of age, whereas for those with stable or increasing resources, no effects of SES on distress were found.
The results indicate that higher SES is associated with more favorable changes in psychological resources. In a longitudinal setting, SES differences in health seem to increase only when psychological resources decrease during the same period. The results emphasize the importance of dynamic conceptualizations of psychological resources in SES-health research.
The strong negative correlations observed between the sense of coherence (SOC) scale and measures of depression and anxiety raise the question of whether the SOC scale inversely measures the other constructs. The main aim of the present study was to examine the discriminant validity of the three measures by comparing their associations with health indicators and behaviours. The participants were 25 to 74-year-old Finnish men (n=2351) and women (n=2291) from the National Cardiovascular Risk Factor Survey conducted in 1997. The SOC scale had high inverse correlations with both depression (r=-0.62 among both men and women) and anxiety measures (r=-0.57 among the men and r=-0.54 among the women). Although confirmatory factor analyses suggested that it was possible to differentiate between SOC, cognitive depressive symptoms and anxiety, the estimated correlations were even higher than those mentioned above. Education was related only to SOC, but the associations of SOC, cognitive depressive symptoms and anxiety with self-reported and clinically measured health indicators (body mass index, blood pressure, cholesterol) and health behaviours were almost identical. The variation in the lowest SOC tertile was more strongly associated with health variables than in the highest tertile. To conclude, the size of the overlap between the SOC and depression scales was the same as between depression and anxiety measures. This indicates that future studies should examine the discriminant validity of different psychosocial scales more closely, and should compare them in health research in order to bring parallel concepts into the same scientific discussion.
We examined whether there are sex differences in children's fruit and vegetable (FV) intake and in descriptive norms (i.e. perceived FV intake) related to parents and friends. We also studied whether friends' impact is as important as that of parents on children's FV intake. Data from the PRO GREENS project in Finland were obtained from 424 children at the age 11 years at baseline. At baseline, 2009 children filled in a questionnaire about descriptive norms conceptualised as perceived FV intake of their parents and friends. They also filled in a validated FFQ that assessed their FV intake both at baseline and in the follow-up in 2010. The associations were examined with multi-level regression analyses with multi-group comparisons. Girls reported higher perceived FV intake of friends and higher own fruit intake at baseline, compared with boys, and higher vegetable intake both at baseline and in the follow-up. Perceived FV intake of parents and friends was positively associated with both girls' and boys' FV intake in both study years. The impact of perceived fruit intake of the mother was stronger among boys. The change in children's FV intake was affected only by perceived FV intake of father and friends. No large sex differences in descriptive norms were found, but the impact of friends on children's FV intake can generally be considered as important as that of parents. Future interventions could benefit from taking into account friends' impact as role models on children's FV intake.
We examined whether obesity status and dieting history affected the associations of eating styles with measured obesity indicators and self-control among Finnish men (n = 2325) and women (n = 2699) aged 25-75 years. Uncontrolled and emotional eating were positively associated with obesity and reversely with self-control. Among obese subjects and current/past dieters, higher restrained eating was related to lower adiposity, uncontrolled and emotional eating, and higher self-control while these associations were opposite among normal weight subjects and never dieters. These results suggest that restrained eating may be related to better weight control among those who need and/or are motivated to lose weight while among others it may indicate problems with eating.
There is increasing evidence that depressive symptoms and obesity are positively related, but the mechanisms that explain the association between them are unclear.
We examined direct and indirect associations between depressive symptoms, emotional eating, physical activity (PA) self-efficacy (ie, an individual's confidence in his or her ability to overcome barriers to maintain PA behaviors), and adiposity indicators.
Structural equation modeling was used to test the hypothesized mediation model in Finnish men (n = 2312) and women (n = 2674) aged 25-74 y from the National Cardiovascular Risk Factor Survey conducted in 2007. The Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale, the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire-R18, and a PA barriers self-efficacy scale were used. Body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and percentage body fat of participants were measured in a health examination.
Depressive symptoms and emotional eating had positive correlations and PA self-efficacy had negative correlations with BMI, WC, and percentage body fat. Elevated depressive symptoms were related to higher emotional eating (ß = 0.38 for men and 0.31 for women) and lower PA self-efficacy (ß = -0.41 for men and -0.31 for women), whereas emotional eating and PA self-efficacy were inversely correlated (r = -0.12 and -0.18, respectively). The positive bivariate associations between depressive symptoms and adiposity indicators became nonsignificant in models that included emotional eating and PA self-efficacy, and both of these factors significantly mediated the effects of depressive symptoms on adiposity indicators.
Psychological factors related to both eating and PA may be relevant in explaining the positive relation between depressive symptoms and adiposity. Interventions that target obesity should take into account the effects of these factors on weight regulation.
We examined the associations of emotional eating and depressive symptoms with the consumption of sweet and non-sweet energy-dense foods and vegetables/fruit, also focusing on the possible interplay between emotional eating and depressive symptoms. The participants were 25-64-year-old Finnish men (n=1679) and women (n=2035) from the FINRISK 2007 Study (DILGOM substudy). The Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire-R18, Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale, and a 132-item Food Frequency Questionnaire were used. Emotional eating and depressive symptoms correlated positively (r=0.31 among men and women), and both were related to a higher body mass. Emotional eating was related to a higher consumption of sweet foods in both genders and non-sweet foods in men independently of depressive symptoms and restrained eating. The positive associations of depressive symptoms with sweet foods became non-significant after adjustment for emotional eating, but this was not the case for non-sweet foods. Depressive symptoms, but not emotional eating, were related to a lower consumption of vegetables/fruit. These findings suggest that emotional eating and depressive symptoms both affect unhealthy food choices. Emotional eating could be one factor explaining the association between depressive symptoms and consumption of sweet foods, while other factors may be more important with respect to non-sweet foods and vegetables/fruit.
We examine the relationships between depressive symptoms and all-cause mortality and cardiovascular disease (CVD) in a representative sample of the Finnish population.
Subjects included men (N Z 3,850) and women (N Z 4,083) aged 25-74 years who had participated in risk factor surveys (The FINRISK Study) conducted in Finland in 1992 and 1997. Depressive symptoms were measured with the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI).
During a 10-15 year follow-up, there were 422 deaths and 305 nonfatal and fatal CVD events among men and 195 deaths and 145 CVD events among women. Subjects in the third BDI quartile and the highest BDI quartile had higher risk for all-cause mortality than subjects in the first quartile (relative risk [RR], 1.39; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.03-1.86; RR, 1.64; 95% CI, 1.24-2.17, respectively) after adjustment for age, gender, education, smoking, alcohol consumption, and chronic diseases. Among women without a history of CVD, females in the highest BDI quartile had a relative risk of 1.84 (95% CI, 1.06-3.20) compared with those in the first quartile for nonfatal and fatal CVD events after adjusting for age, education, smoking, body mass index, blood pressure, cholesterol, and alcohol consumption.
The relationship between depressive symptoms and CVD varies according to gender and previous history of CVD.