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+Gz-induced spinal symptoms in fighter pilots: operational and individual associated factors.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature118926
Source
Aviat Space Environ Med. 2012 Nov;83(11):1092-6
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-2012
Author
Anthony S Wagstaff
Karl Ivar Jahr
Suzanne Rodskier
Author Affiliation
Institute of Aviation Medicine, Norwegian Armed Forces Medical Services, P.O. Box 14 Blindern, 0313 Oslo, Norway. anthony.wagstaff@flymed.uio.no
Source
Aviat Space Environ Med. 2012 Nov;83(11):1092-6
Date
Nov-2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aerospace Medicine
Back Pain - epidemiology - etiology
Eye Protective Devices - adverse effects
Gravitation
Head Protective Devices - adverse effects
Humans
Middle Aged
Military Personnel
Neck Pain - epidemiology - etiology
Norway - epidemiology
Pain Measurement
Questionnaires
Retrospective Studies
Risk factors
Abstract
Neck pain in fighter pilots has been studied by several air forces and found to be relatively common. The aim of this project was to study the incidence, characteristics, possible associated causative factors, and operational impact of neck pain in Royal Norwegian Air Force (RNoAF) fighter pilots.
The study was designed as a retrospective anonymous questionnaire survey, collecting data on age, aircraft type, flying hours, and physical activity. Any experience of spinal symptoms related to flying was included, as well as detailed questions on operational factors. Estimates regarding how neck symptoms influenced flying performance were established using visual analogue scales (VAS). Pilots also described their own in-flight techniques to avoid neck symptoms.
Of respondents, 72% had experienced neck pain in relation to flying, while 35% had experienced back pain. Of these episodes, 93% were related to neck rotation. Mean G level for acute incidents of in-flight pain was 6.7 G. Total training time is on average higher in pilots who have no neck pain compared to those who have had neck pain events in the last 12 mo; the mean training time being 3.9 h in the "no pain-group" vs. 2.7 h in the "pain group". "Checking six" was the most affected in-flight function.
New technologies such as night-vision goggles and helmet-mounted displays increase helmet weight, thereby adding a higher strain to the neck even in moderate G environments. More research on specific prevention strategies is warranted in order to improve the in-flight working environment of fighter pilots.
PubMed ID
23156098 View in PubMed
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Medical disqualification of 275 commercial pilots: changing patterns over 20 years.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature74901
Source
Aviat Space Environ Med. 2004 Sep;75(9):791-4
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-2004
Author
Per Arva
Anthony S Wagstaff
Author Affiliation
Aeromedical Section, Norwegian Civil Aviation Authority, P.O. Box 128 Blindern, 0314 Oslo, Norway. pea@caa.no
Source
Aviat Space Environ Med. 2004 Sep;75(9):791-4
Date
Sep-2004
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aerospace Medicine
Age Distribution
Aviation - legislation & jurisprudence - manpower
Certification - statistics & numerical data - trends
Humans
Licensure - statistics & numerical data - trends
Male
Middle Aged
Norway - epidemiology
Occupational Diseases - classification - epidemiology
Time Factors
Work Capacity Evaluation
Abstract
INTRODUCTION: The medical requirements for commercial pilots are issued by the ICAO and the European aviation safety organization JAA. In Norway, the Aeromedical Section of the Civil Aviation Authority assesses whether pilots are medically fit to fly. This study presents the reasons for medical disqualification among the Norwegian commercial pilot population during a 20-yr period. METHODS: Files on all disqualified commercial pilots were reviewed and subdivided into age groups and diagnostic categories. Different disqualification rates were calculated. RESULTS: From the study population of 48,229 pilot-years, 275 pilots were permanently grounded, which gives a 20-yr average disqualification rate of 5.7 per 1,000 pilot-years. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: For cardiovascular diseases the disqualification rate was lower after 1997 than before, which is explained by improved treatment and more lenient requirements. In the diagnostic categories, neurology, musculoskeletal, and psychiatric diseases, the disqualification rate increased after 1997. This fact is probably not attributed to more stringent health requirements, but possibly to the attitudes of the pilots, who have become more critical with respect to their subjective perception of their working environment and psychosocial factors.
PubMed ID
15460631 View in PubMed
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Medical Reasons for Loss of License in Norwegian Professional Pilots.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature280777
Source
Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2017 Feb 01;88(2):146-149
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-01-2017
Author
Jesper Kristiansen Høva
Lars Thorheim
Anthony S Wagstaff
Source
Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2017 Feb 01;88(2):146-149
Date
Feb-01-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aerospace Medicine
Cardiovascular diseases
Certification - statistics & numerical data
Databases, Factual
Humans
Mental disorders
Musculoskeletal Diseases
Nervous System Diseases
Norway
Occupations
Otorhinolaryngologic Diseases
Pilots
Abstract
The aim of this study was to quantify causes of medical disqualification (groundings) of Norwegian commercial pilots for the period 2006-2010, and to compare our findings with former Norwegian studies on the subject to reveal possible changes in the disease spectrum over the last decades. We compared our data with previous studies for the periods 1982-1997 and 1997-2001, respectively.
The material was collected from the aeromedical section's archive. Files on all grounded pilots have been reviewed and classified by age group and diagnosis and grounding rates have been calculated.
From the study population comprising 12,552 pilot-years for the years 2006-2010 inclusive, 85 pilots were permanently grounded, i.e., an average grounding rate of 6.8 per 1000 pilot-years.
Compared with previous data there is a significant decrease in the disqualification rate due to cardiovascular conditions, while the disqualification rates due to ear, nose, and throat conditions and neurological conditions have both increased significantly.Høva JK, Thorheim L, Wagstaff AS. Medical reasons for loss of license in Norwegian professional pilots. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2017; 88(2):146-149.
PubMed ID
28095960 View in PubMed
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Readability of New Aviation Chart Symbology in Day and NVG Reading Conditions.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature287611
Source
Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2017 Nov 01;88(11):978-984
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-01-2017
Author
Anthony S Wagstaff
Terje Larsen
Source
Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2017 Nov 01;88(11):978-984
Date
Nov-01-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aviation
Humans
Military Personnel
Night Vision
Reading
Sweden
Symbolism
Abstract
The Swedish Air Force (SwAF) conducted a study in 2010 to harmonize portrayal of aeronautical info (AI) on SwAF charts with NATO standards. A mismatch was found concerning vertical obstructions (VO). Norway regarded Sweden's existing symbology as a way to solve the problem of overcrowded air charts and the two countries started to cooperate. The result of this development was a new set of symbology for obstacles. The aim of this study was to test the readability of the new obstacle and power line symbols compared to the old symbols. We also wished to assess the readability in NVG illumination conditions, particularly regarding the new symbols compared to the old.
In a randomized controlled study design, 21 volunteer military pilots from the Norwegian and Swedish Air Force were asked to perform tracking and chart-reading tests. The chart-reading test scored both errors and readability using a predefined score index. Subjective scoring was also done at the end of the test day.
Overall response time improved by approximately 20% using the new symbology and error rate decreased by approximately 30-90% where statistically significant differences were found.
The tracking test turned out to be too difficult due to several factors in the experimental design. Even though some caution should be shown in drawing conclusions from this study, the general trends seem well supported with the number of aircrew subjects we were able to recruit.Wagstaff AS, Larsen T. Readability of new aviation chart symbology in day and NVG reading conditions. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2017; 88(11):978-984.
PubMed ID
29046172 View in PubMed
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