To explore whether there are any differences in cardiovascular risk factors, including anthropometrics, blood pressure and serum glucose between women and offspring after pregnancies complicated by preeclampsia or diabetes mellitus, compared to uncomplicated pregnancies.
Longitudinal follow-up of mother and child previously recruited to a pregnancy biobank in Norway.
Women with a history of preeclampsia (n = 23), gestational diabetes mellitus (n = 12), diabetes mellitus type 1 (n = 11), or controls (n = 17), and their respective child were recruited 5-8 years after the index pregnancy.
Anthropometrics and blood pressures were measured in mother and child. All non-diabetic women underwent an oral glucose challenge test.
Body mass index, waist circumference, waist to hip ratio, serum glucose, systolic and diastolic blood pressure.
Women in the preeclampsia and diabetes mellitus groups had a slightly higher median systolic blood pressure (p
To study changes in the incidence of obstetric anal sphincter rupture (OASR) during recent years in Denmark, Finland, Sweden and Norway and hospital-based incidence in recent years in Norway.
Retrospective birth register study.
Unselected population of delivering women in four Nordic countries.
All deliveries (574 175) registered in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden, 2004-2010.
Parity data, including maternal, obstetrical and fetal characteristics, were obtained. The incidence of OASR was calculated from vaginal deliveries. A chi-squared test was used to analyse differences between countries and time periods.
Incidence of OASR.
During the study period, the OASR incidence in Finland was notably lower (0.7-1.0%) than in the other three Nordic countries (4.2-2.3%). A significant and constant reduction in OASR incidence was observed in Norway only (from 4.1 to 2.3%, from 2004 to 2010, p
Previous studies estimating the association of maternal country of birth and education with hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP) have shown conflicting results. The aim of the study was to assess the prevalence of HDP and estimate the association of maternal country of birth and education level with preeclampsia/eclampsia and gestational hypertension in Norway.
We performed a population-based observational cohort study linking two population datasets: The Medical Birth Registry of Norway and Statistics Norway (SSB). Singleton deliveries in Norway between 1999 and 2014 (907 048 deliveries) were stratified by parity. Multiple regression analysis was performed.
In 20% of the deliveries the woman was born outside of Norway. Foreign-born women had lower risk of preeclampsia/eclampsia and gestational hypertension compared with Norwegian-born women. High education reduced the risk for preeclampsia/eclampsia by 34% (adjusted odds ratio 0.66, 95% CI 0.62-0.69), compared with women with secondary education among nulliparous women, and by 39% (adjusted odds ratio 0.61, 95% CI 0.57-0.65) among parous women. Poorly educated women had no increased risk of HDP compared with women with secondary education. Among highly educated nulliparous women the risk of preeclampsia/eclampsia was lower but the risk of gestational hypertension higher compared with women of similar parity with secondary education. Adjustment for confounding variables had minimal effect on these estimates.
Maternal country of birth and education were associated with HDP. Women with higher education had the lowest risk of HDP, and Norwegian-born women had the highest risk of HDP, regardless of parity and other confounding factors.
The inflammatory cell product neopterin is elevated in serum before and during delirium. This suggests a role for disordered cell-mediated immunity or oxidative stress. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) neopterin levels reflect brain neopterin levels more closely than serum levels. Here we hypothesized that CSF neopterin levels would be higher in delirium.
In this prospective cohort study, 139 elderly patients with acute hip fracture were recruited in Oslo and Edinburgh. Delirium was diagnosed with the confusion assessment method performed daily pre-operatively and on the first 5 days post-operatively. Paired CSF and blood samples were collected at the onset of spinal anaesthesia. Neopterin levels were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography.
Sixty-four (46 %) of 139 hip fracture patients developed delirium perioperatively. CSF neopterin levels were higher in delirium compared to controls (median 29.6 vs 24.7 nmol/mL, p?=?0.003), with highest levels in patients who developed delirium post-operatively. Serum neopterin levels were also higher in delirium (median 37.0 vs 27.1 nmol/mL, p?=?0.003). CSF neopterin remained significantly associated with delirium after controlling for relevant risk factors. Higher neopterin levels were associated with poorer outcomes (death or new institutionalization) 1 year after surgery (p?=?0.02 for CSF and p?=?0.03 for serum).
This study is the first to examine neopterin in CSF from patients with delirium. Our findings suggest potential roles for activation of cell-mediated immune responses or oxidative stress in the delirium process. High levels of serum or CSF neopterin in hip fracture patients may also be useful in predicting poor outcomes.
Women with a history of diabetes mellitus (DM) or preeclampsia (PE) in pregnancy run an increased risk of future cardiovascular associated diseases. Offspring of such pregnancies may possibly also have an altered risk in health status. Descriptive studies of dietary intake and physical activity in mother and children several years after pregnancies complicated by PE or DM are lacking. By the use of a simple questionnaire survey, we aimed at exploring whether there are any differences in these lifestyle factors between women and between offspring 5-8 years after PE (23 women-child pairs) or DM (23 women-child pairs) in pregnancy, compared to uncomplicated pregnancies (controls, 17 women-child pairs). Our data showed that women in the DM- and PE-group were less physically active compared to controls (p
BACKGROUND: While it is widely accepted that periconceptional supplement of 400 microg (microgram) folic acid reduces the risk of neural tube defects in pregnancy, it remains to be established whether folic acid has other beneficial effects on larger population groups. Evidence concerning effect of increased intake on cardiovascular disease, cancer and other diseases has recently been evaluated in a report to the Directorate of Health and Social Welfare in Norway. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Research reports published mainly from 1998 to 2003 on folic acid intake and disease have been evaluated. RESULTS: Sufficient evidence that increased folic acid intake may prevent cancer or cardiovascular diseases is not yet available, hence at present there is no indication for recommending augmented intake for other groups than fertile women. However, several intervention studies with folic acid supplementation are in progress to establish its effect on cardiovascular mortality and morbidity. INTERPRETATION: If the ongoing intervention studies show a beneficial clinical effect on cardiovascular disease, it would be a further argument for fortification of foods, in addition to reducing the risk of neural tube defects in pregnancy.
BACKGROUND: In order to prevent neural tube defects, a daily supplement of 400 microg (microgram) folic acid has been recommended in Norway since 1998, during the last month before conception and the first two or three months of pregnancy. Compliance with and effects of this recommendation has recently been evaluated in Norway in a report to the Directorate of Health and Social Welfare. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Reports published on periconceptional folic acid intake in Norway and some other countries from 1998 to autumn 2003 have been evaluated. RESULTS: In spite of several information activities, few Norwegian women start folic acid supplementation before verified pregnancy. The supplementation is started too late for the prevention of neural tube defects. A reduction is not observed in Norway. Internationally, information has not proven effective either, whereas compulsory fortification of foods with folic acid has been associated with reduced incidence. Information about periconceptional folic acid intake should be intensified. Compulsory fortification of foods with folic acid will affect the whole population, not only the target group of fertile women. If ongoing large intervention studies show improved clinical prognosis for patients with cardiovascular disease, this will be an additional argument for fortification of foods.
Preeclampsia is a long-term cardiovascular risk factor for the mother and possibly the offspring. Preeclampsia and cardiovascular diseases share common pathophysiological features, including endothelial dysfunction. We explored whether endothelial function, measured noninvasively, as well as circulating biomarkers reflecting lipid metabolism, angiogenesis, and inflammation, differed in paired mothers and offspring 5 to 8 years after delivery. Twenty-six mother and child pairs after pregnancies complicated by preeclampsia were compared with 17 mother and child pairs after uncomplicated pregnancies. In addition, we assessed whether concentrations of maternal circulating biomarkers at delivery predicted findings 5 to 8 years postpartum. We also included an assessment of early onset preeclampsia and specifically addressed the effects of small for gestational age. Endothelial function was significantly reduced in both mothers and children after preeclampsia when combined with a small-for-gestational-age infant compared with mothers and children after pregnancies without a small-for-gestational-age infant (mothers: P
Preeclampsia is associated with an increased risk of hypertension later in life. The regulator of G protein signaling 2 negatively regulates several vasoconstrictors. We recently demonstrated an association between preeclampsia and the CG or GG genotype of the C1114G polymorphism (rs4606) of the regulator of G protein signaling 2 gene. Here, we examined the polymorphism with respect to the development of hypertension after pregnancy.
We genotyped 934 women on average 15.1 years after preeclampsia and 2011 age matched women with previous normotensive pregnancy. All women in this study were retrospectively recruited from the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (HUNT2). Information from HUNT2 was linked to the Medical Birth Registry of Norway to identify women with a history of preeclampsia and women without a history of preeclampsia.
No significant association was found between hypertension (blood pressure =140/90 mmHg and/or taking antihypertensive drugs) and the polymorphism in crude analysis (OR (95% CI): CG genotype: 1.07 (0.90-1.27); GG genotype: 1.23 (0.90-1.67)). However, in a minimally adjusted model (age and BMI adjusted), a significant association between the GG genotype and hypertension was found (OR (95% CI): 1.49 (1.05-2.11)). This association remained significant also after adjustment for a history of preeclampsia (OR (95% CI): 1.46 (1.02-2.09)), but not in a model adjusted for multiple other variables (OR (95% CI): 1.26 (0.82-1.94)). In multivariate, but not in crude, analysis, the GG genotype of rs4606 (OR (95% CI): 1.93 (1.05-3.53)) was significantly and independently associated with severe hypertension later in life, defined as systolic blood pressure =160 mmHg (stage 2 hypertension) and/or taking antihypertensive drugs. A significant association was also found for the merged CG and GG genotypes (OR (95% CI): 1.43 (1.02-2.00)). Moreover, an interaction with physical activity was found. A history of preeclampsia was a significant and independent predictor of either definition of hypertension, both in crude and adjusted analyses.
Women carrying the rs4606 CG or GG genotype are at elevated risk for developing hypertension after delivery. Physical activity may interact with the association. Preeclampsia remains an independent risk factor for subsequent hypertension after adjusting for this polymorphism and classical CVD risk factors.
There are large variations in reported frequency of recurrence and subsequent treatment after pelvic organ prolapse (POP) surgery. We hypothesized that native tissue repair entails high subjective satisfaction and good objective results, with low POP reoperation rates and few complications.
The 1-year results of 699 women having had native tissue repair for POP at our urogynecological unit from 2002 to 2005 were evaluated using an internal quality control database. A short-form physician check list for patient subjective and objective outcomes has been routinely used for 1-year controls since 2002, and results are registered longitudinally in the database. Patients' medical records up to 2012 were reviewed for information on recurrent POP symptoms. A telephone interview was performed to assess POP recurrences potentially treated elsewhere. The cumulative incidence for reoperation was calculated comparing partial with complete (surgical treatment of all three compartments) native tissue repairs.
Subjective satisfaction was stated by 94 % of patients at the 1-year control, and 84 % had stage 0-I in any compartment using the POP Quantification (POP-Q) system. The 5-year reoperation rate was significantly lower in the complete vs. the partial (2.6 % vs. 8.9 %) repair group. Cumulative incidence of reoperation showed a slight but constant increase over the years.
POP surgery using native tissue repair entails low reoperation rates with excellent subjective and objective results and should be the first choice in treating primary POP, providing use of adequate surgical technique.