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30-Day Mortality after Cardiovascular Events in Persons with or without Alzheimer's Disease.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature274270
Source
J Alzheimers Dis. 2015;48(1):241-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
2015
Author
Jari Heiskanen
Sirpa Hartikainen
Risto P Roine
Anna-Maija Tolppanen
Source
J Alzheimers Dis. 2015;48(1):241-9
Date
2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Alzheimer Disease - epidemiology - mortality
Cardiovascular Diseases - epidemiology - mortality
Cohort Studies
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Hemorrhagic Disorders
Humans
Male
Morbidity
Myocardial Infarction
Outcome Assessment (Health Care)
Proportional Hazards Models
Residence Characteristics
Stroke
Abstract
Persons with Alzheimer's disease (AD) have been suggested to receive suboptimal treatment. We studied the 30-day mortality after ischemic stroke, hemorrhagic stroke, or myocardial infarction in individuals with or without AD.
An exposure matched cohort of all Finnish community-dwellers diagnosed with clinically verified AD in 2005-2012 (n?=?73,005) and 1-4 matched comparison persons/AD-affected person (n?=?215,449). Data on 30-day mortality after ischemic stroke (n?=?16,419; deaths: n?=?2,748), hemorrhagic stroke (n?=?3,570; deaths: n?=?1,224), and myocardial infarction (n?=?15,304; deaths: n?=?3,804) were obtained from the National Hospital Discharge register. The main analyses were restricted to first-ever events.
Persons with AD had slightly higher 30-day mortality after ischemic stroke (adjusted HR 1.36, 95% Confidence interval (CI) 1.24,1.49), hemorrhagic stroke (adjusted HR 1.11, 95% CI 0.98,1.25), or myocardial infarction (adjusted HR, 1.40, 9% CI 1.30,1.51). The associations were not affected by age, gender, or co-morbidities and remained similar when patients with previous ischemic strokes or infarctions were included. The absolute risk increase in 30-day mortality after ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke and myocardial infarction were 4.9% (95% CI 3.3,6.5), 3.3% (95% CI - 1.6,8.2), and 7.5% (95% CI 5.0,10.0), respectively.
Although the 30-day mortality was somewhat higher in the AD cohort, the absolute differences were small indicating that acute treatment was not notably inferior in AD patients. The slightly higher mortality was not explained by co-morbidities but may reflect the higher mortality of AD persons in general, or treatment practice of patients with severe cognitive impairment.
PubMed ID
26401944 View in PubMed
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Antidementia drug use among community-dwelling individuals with Alzheimer's disease in Finland: a nationwide register-based study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature260126
Source
Int Clin Psychopharmacol. 2014 Jul;29(4):216-23
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-2014
Author
Heidi Taipale
Antti Tanskanen
Marjaana Koponen
Anna-Maija Tolppanen
Jari Tiihonen
Sirpa Hartikainen
Source
Int Clin Psychopharmacol. 2014 Jul;29(4):216-23
Date
Jul-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Alzheimer Disease - drug therapy
Cholinesterase Inhibitors - adverse effects - therapeutic use
Cohort Studies
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders
Drug Monitoring
Drug Prescriptions
Drug Therapy, Combination - adverse effects
Excitatory Amino Acid Antagonists - adverse effects - therapeutic use
Female
Finland
Follow-Up Studies
Galantamine - adverse effects - therapeutic use
Guideline Adherence
Humans
Indans - adverse effects - therapeutic use
Male
Memantine - adverse effects - therapeutic use
Nootropic Agents - adverse effects - therapeutic use
Phenylcarbamates - adverse effects - therapeutic use
Piperidines - adverse effects - therapeutic use
Practice Guidelines as Topic
Proportional Hazards Models
Registries
Abstract
The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of acetylcholinesterase inhibitor (AChEI) and memantine use, duration of treatment, concomitant use of these drugs, and factors associated with the discontinuation of AChEI therapy during 2006-2009. We utilized data from a nationwide sample of community-dwelling individuals with a clinically verified Alzheimer's disease diagnosed during the year 2005 (n=6858) as a part of the MEDALZ-2005 study. During the 4-year follow-up, 84% used AChEI and 47% used memantine. Altogether, 22% of the sample used both drugs concomitantly. The median duration of the first AChEI use period was 860 (interquartile range 295-1458) days and 1103 (interquartile range 489-1487) days for the total duration of AChEI use. Although 20% of the AChEI users discontinued the use during the first year, over half of them restarted later. The risk of discontinuation was higher for rivastigmine [hazard ratio 1.34 (confidence interval 1.22-1.48)] and galantamine users [hazard ratio 1.23 (confidence interval 1.15-1.37)] compared with donepezil users in the adjusted model. In conclusion, median time for AChEI use was over 3 years and every fifth Alzheimer's disease patient used AChEI and memantine concomitantly during the follow-up. The low rate of discontinuation is consistent with the Finnish Care Guideline but in contrast to the results reported from many other countries.
Notes
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PubMed ID
24608822 View in PubMed
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Antidepressant use and risk of hip fractures among community-dwelling persons with and without Alzheimer's disease.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature292637
Source
Int J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2017 12; 32(12):e107-e115
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
12-2017
Author
Sanna Torvinen-Kiiskinen
Anna-Maija Tolppanen
Marjaana Koponen
Antti Tanskanen
Jari Tiihonen
Sirpa Hartikainen
Heidi Taipale
Author Affiliation
Kuopio Research Centre of Geriatric Care, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland.
Source
Int J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2017 12; 32(12):e107-e115
Date
12-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Alzheimer Disease - complications
Antidepressive Agents - therapeutic use
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Hip Fractures - epidemiology
Hospitalization - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Male
Proportional Hazards Models
Retrospective Studies
Risk factors
Abstract
To study whether antidepressant use is associated with an increased risk of hip fracture among community-dwelling persons with and without Alzheimer's disease (AD), and to compare the risk according to duration of use and between antidepressant groups.
Retrospective cohort study, including 50,491 persons with AD (mean age 80) and 100,982 comparison persons without AD from Finnish register-based MEDALZ cohort. Antidepressant use was compared with nonuse with Cox proportional hazard models. Incident users were identified with a one year washout period from Prescription register data. Main outcome was hospitalization due to hip fracture.
During antidepressant use, the age-adjusted rate of hip fractures per 100 person-years was 3.01 (95% CI 2.75-3.34) among persons with and 2.28 (1.94-2.61) among persons without AD. Antidepressant use was associated with an increased risk of hip fracture among persons with and without AD (adjusted HR 1.61, 95% CI 1.45-1.80 and 2.71, 2.35-3.14, respectively) compared with nonuse. The risk was most prominent in the beginning of use and was elevated even up to 4 years. The risk was increased with all of the most frequently used antidepressants.
Antidepressant use is associated with an increased risk of hip fracture among older persons. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Notes
CommentIn: Evid Based Nurs. 2017 Jul;20(3):94 PMID 28601807
PubMed ID
28055139 View in PubMed
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Antipsychotic doses among community-dwelling persons with Alzheimer disease in Finland.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature266764
Source
J Clin Psychopharmacol. 2014 Aug;34(4):435-40
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-2014
Author
Heidi Taipale
Marjaana Koponen
Antti Tanskanen
Anna-Maija Tolppanen
Jari Tiihonen
Sirpa Hartikainen
Source
J Clin Psychopharmacol. 2014 Aug;34(4):435-40
Date
Aug-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged, 80 and over
Alzheimer Disease - drug therapy - epidemiology - psychology
Antipsychotic Agents - administration & dosage
Cohort Studies
Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Follow-Up Studies
Humans
Male
Residence Characteristics
Abstract
Use of antipsychotics for treatment of behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia is frequent among persons with Alzheimer disease (AD). Doses used in long-term therapy have not been previously reported. We describe antipsychotic doses used among community-dwelling persons with AD and investigate factors associated with high-dose use. The MEDALZ-2005 (Medication use and Alzheimer disease) cohort is a nationwide sample including all persons with clinically diagnosed AD at the end of year 2005 in Finland (n = 28,093). Data including prescriptions, comorbidities, and hospital discharge diagnoses were collected from nationwide registers. Antipsychotic doses in monotherapy were investigated during 2006 to 2009. Among 8920 antipsychotic users, 4% (n = 336) used antipsychotics with high dose. Typical antipsychotics were more often used with high dose than atypical antipsychotics. High-dose use was associated with younger age (
PubMed ID
24875073 View in PubMed
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Antipsychotic polypharmacy among a nationwide sample of community-dwelling persons with Alzheimer's disease.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature261391
Source
J Alzheimers Dis. 2014;41(4):1223-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
2014
Author
Heidi Taipale
Marjaana Koponen
Antti Tanskanen
Anna-Maija Tolppanen
Jari Tiihonen
Sirpa Hartikainen
Source
J Alzheimers Dis. 2014;41(4):1223-8
Date
2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Alzheimer Disease - drug therapy - epidemiology - psychology
Antipsychotic Agents - therapeutic use
Cohort Studies
Confidence Intervals
Databases, Factual - statistics & numerical data
Female
Finland
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Polypharmacy
Residence Characteristics
Abstract
Antipsychotic polypharmacy (APP) is not recommended in treatment of behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD). There is lack of studies concerning prevalence of APP among persons with dementia.
The objective of our study was to describe prevalence and risk factors associated with antipsychotic polypharmacy among antipsychotic users with Alzheimer's disease (AD).
Data from nationwide MEDALZ-2005 cohort including all community-dwelling persons diagnosed with AD in Finland was utilized. Register-based data included prescriptions, comorbidities, and hospital discharge diagnoses. Users of antipsychotics during 2006-2009 were included (n = 9,803). The risk of starting antipsychotic polypharmacy was evaluated with Cox proportional hazards model.
Prevalence of antipsychotic polypharmacy was 8% (n = 750) among antipsychotic users (n = 9,803). Quetiapine and risperidone was the most common combination of two antipsychotics followed by combination of quetiapine and haloperidol. Antipsychotic polypharmacy was associated with younger age (HR 1.35 [Confidence Interval, CI, 1.16-1.56]), male gender (HR 1.18 [CI 1.02-1.38]), and history of psychiatric disorder (HR 1.50 [CI 1.26-1.78]) in the adjusted model.
In conclusion, we found higher prevalence of APP than previously reported among older populations. This is concerning since effectiveness of APP has not been demonstrated and APP is not recommended in the treatment of BPSD. Clinicians should pay more attention to avoid APP and use of antipsychotics to other indications than BPSD among persons with AD.
PubMed ID
24787914 View in PubMed
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Antipsychotic Use and Risk of Hospitalization or Death Due to Pneumonia in Persons With and Those Without Alzheimer Disease.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature282670
Source
Chest. 2016 Dec;150(6):1233-1241
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2016
Author
Anna-Maija Tolppanen
Marjaana Koponen
Antti Tanskanen
Piia Lavikainen
Reijo Sund
Jari Tiihonen
Sirpa Hartikainen
Heidi Taipale
Source
Chest. 2016 Dec;150(6):1233-1241
Date
Dec-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Alzheimer Disease - complications - drug therapy
Antipsychotic Agents - adverse effects
Comorbidity
Cross-Over Studies
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Hospitalization - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Incidence
Male
Middle Aged
Pneumonia - mortality
Propensity Score
Risk factors
Socioeconomic Factors
Abstract
The use of antipsychotic agents has been associated with increased pneumonia risk, but although people with dementia are particularly susceptible to pneumonia, only one small study has assessed the risk of pneumonia in relation to the use of antipsychotic agents among people with Alzheimer disease (AD).
We investigated whether the incident use of antipsychotic agents, or specific antipsychotic agents, are related to a higher risk of hospitalization or death due to pneumonia in the Medication and Alzheimer Disease (MEDALZ) cohort. The cohort includes all individuals with AD who received a clinically verified AD diagnosis in Finland in 2005 to 2011 (N = 60,584; incident pneumonia, n = 12,225). A matched comparison cohort without AD (N = 60,584; incident pneumonia, n = 6,195) was used to compare the magnitude of risk. Results were adjusted for a propensity score derived from comorbidities, concomitant medications, and sociodemographic characteristics. Sensitivity analyses with case-crossover design were conducted.
The use of antipsychotic agents was associated with a higher risk of pneumonia (adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 2.01; 95% CI, 1.90-2.13) in the AD cohort and a somewhat higher risk in the non-AD cohort (adjusted HR, 3.43; 95% CI, 2.99-3.93). Similar results were observed with case-crossover analyses (OR, 2.02; 95% CI, 1.75-2.34 in the AD cohort and OR, 2.59; 95% CI, 1.77-3.79 in the non-AD cohort). The three most commonly used antipsychotic agents (quetiapine, risperidone, haloperidol) had similar associations with pneumonia risk.
Regardless of applied study design, treatment duration, or the choice of drug, the use of antipsychotic agents was associated with a higher risk of pneumonia. With observational data, we cannot fully rule out a shared causality between pneumonia and the use of antipsychotic agents, but the risk to benefit balance should be considered when antipsychotic agents are prescribed.
PubMed ID
27298071 View in PubMed
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Associations across spatial patterns of disease incidences, socio-demographics, and land use in Finland 1991-2010.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature265155
Source
Scand J Public Health. 2015 Jun;43(4):356-63
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-2015
Author
Ari Voutilainen
Sirpa Hartikainen
Paula R Sherwood
Heidi Taipale
Anna-Maija Tolppanen
Katri Vehviläinen-Julkunen
Source
Scand J Public Health. 2015 Jun;43(4):356-63
Date
Jun-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Asthma - epidemiology
Conservation of Natural Resources - statistics & numerical data
Coronary Disease - epidemiology
Diabetes Mellitus - epidemiology
Epidemiology - statistics & numerical data
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Geography, Medical
Health Status Disparities
Humans
Hypertension - epidemiology
Incidence
Male
Mental Disorders - epidemiology
Neoplasms - epidemiology
Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive - epidemiology
Registries
Risk factors
Rural Health - statistics & numerical data
Spatial Analysis
Unemployment - statistics & numerical data
Urban Health - statistics & numerical data
Abstract
The epidemiological aim was to draw a general picture of spatial patterns of diseases, socio-demographics, and land use in Finland to detect possible under-recognized associations between the patterns. The methodological purpose was to compare and combine two statistical techniques to approach the data from different viewpoints.
Two different statistical methods, the self-organizing map and principal coordinates of neighbor matrices with variation partitioning, were used to search for spatial patterns of 15 non-infectious diseases and 17 direct or indirect risk factors. The dataset was gathered from five Finnish registries and pooled over the years 1991-2010. The statistical unit in the analyses was a municipality (n=303).
Variables referring to urban living were related to low incidences of all other diseases but cancer, whereas variables referring to rural living were related to low incidences of cancer and high incidences of other diseases, especially coronary heart disease (CHD), hypertension, diabetes, asthma/chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and serious mental illnesses at the municipal level. The relationships between diseases other than cancer and risk factors related to socio-demographics and land use variables were stronger than those between cancer and risk factors.
The structuration of spatial patterns was dominated by CHD together with land use features and unemployment rate. The relationship between unemployment and spatial health inequalities was emphasized. On the basis of the present study, it is suggested that large heterogeneous datasets are clustered and analyzed simultaneously with more than one statistical method to recognize the most significant and generalizable results.
PubMed ID
25743878 View in PubMed
Less detail

Cohort profile: the Finnish Medication and Alzheimer's disease (MEDALZ) study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature287549
Source
BMJ Open. 2016 Jul 13;6(7):e012100
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-13-2016
Author
Anna-Maija Tolppanen
Heidi Taipale
Marjaana Koponen
Piia Lavikainen
Antti Tanskanen
Jari Tiihonen
Sirpa Hartikainen
Source
BMJ Open. 2016 Jul 13;6(7):e012100
Date
Jul-13-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Alzheimer Disease - complications - diagnosis - drug therapy
Antidepressive Agents - adverse effects - therapeutic use
Benzodiazepines - adverse effects - therapeutic use
Cohort Studies
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders
Drug Evaluation
Drug Monitoring
Female
Finland
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Patient Acceptance of Health Care
Psychotropic Drugs - adverse effects - therapeutic use
Abstract
The aim of the Medicine use and Alzheimer's disease (MEDALZ) study is to investigate the changes in medication and healthcare service use among persons with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of medications in this group. This is important, because the number of persons with AD is rapidly growing and even though they are a particularly vulnerable patient group, the number of representative, large-scale studies with adequate follow-up time is limited.
MEDALZ contains all residents of Finland who received a clinically verified diagnosis of AD between 2005 and 2011 and were community-dwelling at the time of diagnosis (N=70 719). The diagnosis is based on the National Institute of Neurological and Communicative Disorders and Stroke and the Alzheimer's Disease and Related Disorders Association (NINCS-ADRDA) and Diagnostic and Statistical Manual Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) criteria for Alzheimer's disease. The cohort contains socioeconomic data (education, occupational status and taxable income, 1972-2012) and causes of death (2005-2012), data from the prescription register (1995-2012), the special reimbursement register (1972-2012) and the hospital discharge register (1972-2012). Future updates are planned.The average age was 80.1 years (range 34.5-104.6 years). The majority of cohort (65.2%) was women. Currently, the average length of follow-up after AD diagnosis is 3.1 years and altogether 26 045 (36.8%) persons have died during the follow-up.
Altogether 53% of the cohort had used psychotropic drugs within 1 year after AD diagnoses. The initiation rate of for example, benzodiazepines and related drugs and antidepressants began to increase already before AD diagnosis.
We are currently assessing if these, and other commonly used medications are related to adverse events such as death, hip fractures, head injuries and pneumonia.
Notes
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PubMed ID
27412109 View in PubMed
Less detail

Comparison of predictors of hip fracture and mortality after hip fracture in community-dwellers with and without Alzheimer's disease - exposure-matched cohort study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature283663
Source
BMC Geriatr. 2016 Dec 01;16(1):204
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-01-2016
Author
Anna-Maija Tolppanen
Heidi Taipale
Antti Tanskanen
Jari Tiihonen
Sirpa Hartikainen
Source
BMC Geriatr. 2016 Dec 01;16(1):204
Date
Dec-01-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Alzheimer Disease - epidemiology
Causality
Cohort Studies
Comorbidity
Demography
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Hip Fractures - epidemiology - mortality
Humans
Incidence
Independent Living - statistics & numerical data
Male
Proportional Hazards Models
Risk factors
Socioeconomic Factors
Abstract
Dementia, with Alzheimer's disease (AD) being the most common form, is a major hip fracture risk factor, but currently it is not known whether the same factors predict hip fracture among persons with and without dementia/AD. We compared the predictors of hip fracture and mortality after hip fracture in persons with and without AD.
An exposure-matched cohort of all community-dwellers of Finland who received a new clinically verified AD diagnosis in 2005-2011 and had no history of previous hip fracture (N = 67,072) and an age, sex, and region-matched cohort of persons without AD (N = 67,072). Associations between sociodemographic characteristics, comorbidities and medications and risk of hip fracture and mortality after hip fracture were assessed with Cox regression.
As expected, the incidence of hip fractures in 2005-2012 (2.19/100 person-years vs 0.90/100 person-years in the non-AD cohort), as well as mortality after hip fracture (29/100 person-years vs 23/100 person-years in the non-AD cohort) were higher in the AD cohort. This difference was evident regardless of the risk factors. Mental and behavioural disorders (adjusted hazard ratio; HR 95% confidence interval CI: 1.16, 1.09-1.24 and 1.71, 1.52-1.92 in the AD and non-AD-cohorts), antipsychotics (1.12, 1.04-1.20 and 1.56, 1.38-1.76 for AD and non-AD-cohorts) and antidepressants (1.06, 1.00-1.12 and 1.34 1.22-1.47 for AD and non-AD-cohorts) were related to higher, and estrogen/combination hormone therapy (0.87, 0.77-0.9 and 0.79, 0.64-0.98 for AD and non-AD-cohorts) to lower hip fracture risk in both cohorts. Stroke (1.42, 1.26-1.62), diabetes (1.13, 0.99-1.28), active cancer treatment (1.67, 1.22-2.30), proton pump inhibitors (1.14, 1.05-1.25), antiepileptics (1.27, 1.11-1.46) and opioids (1.10, 1.01-1.19) were associated with higher hip fracture risk in the non-AD cohort. Similarly, the associations between mortality risk factors (age, sex, several comorbidities and medications) were stronger in the non-AD cohort.
AD itself appears to be such a significant risk factor for hip fracture, and mortality after hip fracture, that it overrules or diminishes the effect of other risk factors. Thus, it is important to develop and implement preventive interventions that are suitable and effective in this population.
Notes
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PubMed ID
27908278 View in PubMed
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A Comparison of Sex Differences in Psychotropic Medication Use in Older People with Alzheimer's Disease in the US and Finland.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature285249
Source
Drugs Aging. 2017 Jan;34(1):55-65
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-2017
Author
Daniela C Moga
Heidi Taipale
Anna-Maija Tolppanen
Antti Tanskanen
Jari Tiihonen
Sirpa Hartikainen
Qishan Wu
Gregory A Jicha
Danijela Gnjidic
Source
Drugs Aging. 2017 Jan;34(1):55-65
Date
Jan-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Alzheimer Disease - drug therapy - psychology
Anti-Anxiety Agents - administration & dosage - therapeutic use
Antidepressive Agents - administration & dosage - therapeutic use
Antipsychotic Agents - administration & dosage - therapeutic use
Drug Utilization - statistics & numerical data
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Humans
Hypnotics and Sedatives - administration & dosage - therapeutic use
Logistic Models
Male
Middle Aged
Odds Ratio
Prevalence
Psychotropic Drugs - administration & dosage - therapeutic use
Sex Characteristics
United States - epidemiology
Abstract
Given the high prevalence of psychotropic medication use in people with dementia and the potential for different prescribing practices in men and women, our study aimed to investigate sex differences in psychotropic medication use in older adults with Alzheimer's disease (AD) living in the US and Finland.
We used data collected between 2005 and 2011 as part of the National Alzheimer's Coordinating Center (NACC) in the US, and Medication use and Alzheimer's disease (MEDALZ) cohorts in Finland. We evaluated psychotropic medication use (antidepressant, antipsychotic, anxiolytic, sedative, or hypnotic) in participants aged 65 years or older. We employed multivariable logistic regression adjusted for demographics, co-morbidities, and other medications to estimate the magnitude of the association (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] with 95% confidence intervals [CIs]) according to sex.
We included 1099 NACC participants (502 [45.68%] men, 597 [54.32%] women), and 67,049 participants from the MEDALZ cohort (22,961 [34.24%] men, 44,088 [65.75%] women). Women were more likely than men to use psychotropic medications: US, 46.2% vs. 33.1%, p 
Notes
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PubMed ID
27896799 View in PubMed
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