The aim of this study is to produce concepts to describe criteria for good quality of support groups for families with children. The research questions were, what is a good support group like according to parents' experiences and what are the criteria for the good quality from the perspective of families? The study sample consisted of 13 small groups. The study participants consisted of 63 mothers and 14 fathers, who accounted for 63% of the small group attendance. Data were collected in Finland through 13 group interviews. Qualitative content analysis of manifest and latent content was used as the method of analysis. Parents appreciated the availability of information, the ability of the parents to discuss matters, the activities, interaction and good group supervision. As the parental views of the characteristics of a good support group are concrete, they can be easily taken into account with implementing family-oriented support group programmes. The concepts of the present study can be used in the future to construct instruments to evaluate quality of support groups from the perspective of families. Further studies should pay more attention to the experiences of drop out families and families that are not satisfied with group services.
Thus far, international research on small groups has focused on health problems. Research on preventive, resource-, and family-oriented small groups and their impact on family health is scant.
To describe the experiences of families with small children concerning resource-enhancing small support groups, and to identify the benefits to family health described by participating parents at the end of the group processes.
The study population consisted of parents (n=123) attending 13 small groups. Participants included 63 mothers and 14 fathers (63% response rate).
Data were collected through group interviews. Qualitative content analysis of latent content was the method of analysis.
Small groups provided the parents with knowledge about family life and encouraged them to seek information, made them feel refreshed, strengthened their social support networks, enhanced their awareness of their own resources and the different developmental needs at times of change in the family, and increased their confidence concerning their ability to cope.
Concepts from this study can be used in the future to construct instruments to evaluate the effectiveness of small groups from the perspective of families and family health. The findings add to our professional understanding of resource-oriented family work from the perspective of families.
These are challenging times for gerontological nurses, due to the increasing need for older people care services and nursing expertise and to the burdensome nature of older people care. These changes also challenge professional ethics. Traditionally, literature has focused more on nurses' duties and responsibilities, rather than on their rights.
The aim was to explore the concept of nurses' rights from the perspective of nurses in gerontological care.
A qualitative study conducted among gerontological nurses (n = 29) in the older people care of two publicly provided municipal older people care organisations in two mid-range towns in Finland. Participation in the study was voluntary, and the participants were recruited in collaboration with a nurse executive. The data, collected in 11 interviews (1-4 participants in each) using open-ended interview method, were analysed by inductive content analysis.
Based on our findings, nurses' rights are an integral part of everyday nursing. As professionals, nurses pointed out that their rights are based on legislation and ethics, and their rights involve colleagues, managers, organisation, and patients and relatives. Their rights were connected to nurses' professional expertise and their well-being at work, but at the end, they were a factor to improving quality of older people care. This required that nurses' rights were taken as visible and elementary part of management.
On the basis of our findings, especially in very demanding areas of nursing, like older people care, nurses' rights deserve major visibility and should be taken into consideration when planning care.
The demand to increase nursing competence is brought on by the requirement of safe, accessible and more effective use of healthcare provider expertise. Clinical nurse specialist competency development dates back to the late 20th century; however, an examination of the literature reveals a lack of research and discussion to support the competency development.
To describe the formulation and validation process of the clinical nurse specialist core competencies.
Exploratory sequential mixed-method design.
This mixed-method study, conducted between 2013 and 2017 in Finland, involved four phases: I) a Policy Delphi study (n = 25, n = 22, n = 19); II) cross-mapping of preliminary competency criteria against international competency sets; III) content validity study of expanded competency criteria (n = 7, n = 10); and IV) verification of competency criteria with practicing CNSs (n = 16). Data were analysed by both qualitative and quantitative analysis methods.
Seventy-four preliminary clinical nurse competency criteria were formulated in the first phase of the study. Through cross-mapping the competencies against the US and Canadian clinical nurse specialist competency sets, they were further concised to 61 criteria. The examination of Content Validity Indexes and experts' comments led to the clarification and consequent inclusion of 50 criteria to the final scale, with Scale Content Validity Index Average of 0.94. The competency criteria were evaluated to be a solid set with potential to clarify and uniform the clinical nurse specialist roles.
Through a rigorous research process, validated clinical nurse specialist competency criteria were formed with a high Scale Content Validity Index Average. The results allude to the potential of formulating international competency criteria to support global role clarity and understanding. However, further research is needed to validate the content and construct of the formulated competencies with a larger population across countries.
The purpose of this article is to describe the ethical issues arising out of participatory action research (PAR), on the basis of both an empirical study and the research literature, and to discuss how to deal with these issues. The data consist of the experiences and results of three phases of PAR relating to orthopaedic patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and the analysis of 20 articles on the ethics of action research. As a result, the following ethical issues and the ways to treat them were discussed: informed consent, confidentiality and anonymity, protecting an individual from harm, the role of the researcher, the location of 'power' in PAR, and the ownership of the research. The flexibility of PAR in use and its main features are also related to the decisions made and actions taken in response to ethical issues. It is particularly important in PAR to proceed according to the participants, and to involve them from the beginning of the process, in order to insure the equal balance of power between participants and researcher.
In this qualitative focus group study, the resources available to older home-dwelling people, particularly incoming and existing home care clients, are described from the viewpoint of home care professionals (n?=?32). The data were analyzed using inductive content analysis. There were three categories of older people requiring resources from the viewpoint of interviewers: home-dwelling people, incoming home care clients, and existing home care clients. Based on the analysis, the resources of older home-dwelling people were categorized in terms of support, meaningful life, everyday activities, and environment. Incoming home care client resources were support, out-of-home activities, in-home activities, and environment. Existing client resources were described in terms of support, everyday activities, and environment. Home care professionals described the resources of the older home-dwelling people in diverse ways, but those of the perspective of existing clients were reduced. The biggest difference was in everyday activities. Psychological and social resources, including meaningful life and social relationships, seemed to be forgotten. All available resources must be taken into account, especially in the everyday home care services for existing home care clients.
To improve an early intervention (EI) triggered by the Adolescents' Substance Use Measurement (ADSUME) as a method to prevent substance abuse among adolescents. We assessed how ADSUME and EI work in practice and how EI could be improved.
School health nurses (n=10) tested ADSUME and EI on 14- to 18-year-old adolescents (n=228). Six months later, these nurses and their professional partners were invited to assess EI in focus group interviews.
Four focus group interviews involving a total of 24 nurses and partners were implemented. Interview data were analyzed with qualitative content analysis.
ADSUME concretized assessment, activated profound dialogue, and proved to be an important part of EI. It was important to assess the adolescent's resources in addition to the ADSUME score. EI worked well in confidential dialogues after the adolescent and the PHN reached a consensus on the level of concern about the adolescent's substance use. The recommended EI enabled individual brief intervention in all four stages of substance use, from abstinence or experimental use to hazardous use.
EI was improved practically, and the contents of the intervention were reformulated. It is important to integrate EI with the preventive efforts of the school.
The aim of this study is to describe the factors hindering and facilitating the implementation of the advanced practice registered nurses role at Finnish university hospitals, and to examine the implications for its future development. A descriptive qualitative approach, using thematic individual interviews, was conducted in 2011 with a sample of 11 advanced practice registered nurses. The data were analysed using qualitative content analysis. The advanced practice registered nurses role barriers had an impact on the role development needs. In turn, the facilitating factors helped encounter the challenges of the role, therefore having an impact on both the current role achievement, as well as contributing to the future role development. The factors hindering and facilitating the advanced practice registered nurses role need to be acknowledged to support the role implementation and planning of the future of the role.
The purpose of this study was to describe breastfeeding knowledge of childbearing parents as well as to discover the demographic variables related to it, and evaluate the use of a web-based survey.
The electronic Breastfeeding Knowledge, Attitude and Confidence scale was developed, and the data were collected at eight maternity healthcare clinics in Finland. All the families who visited those clinics between March 2 and April 3, 2009 were invited to the study, and 123 pregnant mothers and 49 fathers completed the survey.
The respondents correctly answered 68% of the items related to breastfeeding knowledge. The most usual lack of knowledge concerned how to increase lactation, sufficiency of breast milk in hot weather, sufficiency of breast milk for 4 months after birth, and the need to pump the breasts after alcohol consumption. Differences in the breastfeeding scores existed when gender, parity, age, living with spouse, educational level, smoking, time of pregnancy and breastfeeding history were considered. The web-based survey was well suited to the data collection, but the weak response rate requires attention. Parents need more information about ways to increase lactation and reasons to start complementary feeding.
This study describes the extent to which registered and practical mental health nurses support, and consider the support in the units on parental responsibility in adult psychiatry, with regard to clients who are parents of dependent children and the predictors for this. A questionnaire survey was carried out in 2005 with Finnish practical and registered mental health nurses. Most nurses claimed that they support the well-being of parent clients and discuss with them about their children. At the units there is offered a support for parents in the therapeutic milieu and with managing at home with their parental duties. Nurses' ability to support their clients as parents and to recognize the support at the units increases through personal experiences such as being parent, professional experience, and further professional education.