The aim of this study was to determine bone mineral density (BMD), markers of bone metabolism, fractures, and steroids reflecting hormonal control in adult males with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH). SUBJECTS, METHODS, AND DESIGN: We compared CAH males with 21-hydroxylase deficiency (n=30), 19-67 years old, with age- and sex-matched controls (n=32). Subgroups of CYP21A2 genotypes, age, glucocorticoid preparation, poor control vs overtreatment, and early vs late (>36 months) diagnosis were studied. BMD measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry and markers of bone metabolism and androgens/17-hydroxyprogesterone levels were investigated.
All, including older (>30 years), CAH patients had lower BMD in all measured sites compared with control subjects. The null group demonstrated lower BMD in more locations than the other groups. Osteoporosis/osteopenia was present in 81% of CAH patients compared with 32% in controls (=30 years). Fracture frequency was similar, osteocalcin was lower, and fewer patients than controls had vitamin D insufficiency. IGF1 was elevated in the milder genotypes. In patients, total body BMD was positively correlated to weight, BMI, total lean body mass, and triglycerides, and negatively to prolactin. Patients on prednisolone had lower BMD and osteocalcin levels than those on hydrocortisone/cortisone acetate. Patients with poor control had higher femoral neck BMD. There were no differences in BMD between patients with an early vs late diagnosis.
CAH males have low BMD and bone formation markers. BMD should be monitored, adequate prophylaxis and treatment established, and glucocorticoid doses optimized to minimize the risk of future fractures.
The aim was to determine disease-causing variants in the GALT gene which codes for the enzyme galactose-1-phosphate uridylyltransferase. Loss of activity of this enzyme causes classical galactosemia-a life threatening, treatable disorder, included in the Swedish newborn screening program since 1967. A total of 66 patients with the disease are known in Sweden and 56 index patients were investigated. An additional two patients with Duarte galactosemia were included. The disease-causing variants were identified in all patients. As reported from other countries only a few variants frequently recur in severe disease. The two variants p.(Gln188Arg) (c.563A>G) and p.(Met142Lys) (c.425T>A) are present in several index patients whereas the remaining are found in one to three patients each. The most common variant, p.(Gln188Arg), has an allele frequency of 51% in the cohort. A total of 16 novel variants were found among the 33 different variants in the cohort. Two of these are synonymous variants affecting splicing, demonstrating the importance of the evaluation of synonymous variants at the cDNA level. Concise sentence: Galactosemia is a rare disease in Sweden and the disease-causing variants are heterogenous including two synonymous variants.
X-linked adrenal hypoplasia congenita (AHC) is a rare disorder characterized by primary adrenal insufficiency and hypogonadic hypogonadism. It is caused by deletions or point mutations of the NR0B1 gene, on Xp21. AHC can be associated with glycerol kinase deficiency, Duchenne muscular dystrophy and mental retardation (MR), as part of a contiguous gene deletion syndrome. A synthetic probe set for multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification analysis was developed to confirm and characterize NR0B1 deletions in patients with AHC and to correlate their genotypes with their divergent phenotypes.
In 2 patients, isolated AHC was confirmed, while a patient at risk for metabolic crisis was revealed as the deletion extends to the GK gene. A deletion extending to IL1RAPL1 was confirmed in both patients showing MR. Thus, a good genotype-phenotype correlation was confirmed.
Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification analysis is a valuable tool to detect NR0B1 and contiguous gene deletions in patients with AHC. It is especially helpful for IL1RAPL1 deletion detection as no clinical markers for MR are available. Furthermore, multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification has the advantage to identify female carriers that, depending on the deletion extension, have a high risk of giving birth to children with MR, AHC, glycerol kinase deficiency and Duchenne muscular dystrophy.
Recent reports have questioned the rationale for neonatal screening for congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) owing to low sensitivity in salt-wasting forms and a high rate of recall (ie, a positive finding resulting in a visit to a pediatrician and a second test) in preterm infants.
To determine the efficiency of the neonatal screening program for CAH in Sweden over time.
Longitudinal prospective population-based study in Sweden. We assessed neonatal screening for CAH from January 1, 1986, through December 31, 2011, when 2?737?932 infants (99.8%) underwent testing. The CYP21A2 genotype was investigated in 219 cases with true-positive findings (94.8%). We investigated the screening outcomes for 231 patients who had true-positive findings, 43 with late diagnosis, and 1497 infants with false-positive findings.
Sensitivity of the screening for salt-wasting CAH. The most important secondary outcome measures were the positive predictive values and recall rates for full-term and preterm infants and sensitivity for milder forms of CAH.
A total of 143 patients with salt-wasting CAH were identified; none were missed. The sensitivity was lower for milder forms of the disorder (P?=?.04), including 79.7% for simple virilizing forms and 32.4% for nonclassic forms. The positive predictive value was higher in full-term (25.1%) than preterm (1.4%) infants and correlated with gestational age (r?=?0.98; P?
Congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency results in cortisol and aldosterone deficiency and is, in its most severe form, lethal. We aimed to assess the effect of historical medical improvements in the care of patients with this disorder over time and to assess the effects of neonatal screening in Sweden.
For this retrospective, population-based cohort study, we collected data for all known patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia in Sweden between 1910 and 2011 [corrected]. Data sources included the registry at the Swedish national screening laboratory, patients identified via the Swedish neonatal screening programme, late-diagnosed patients reported to the laboratory, and patients who underwent genetic diagnostics or became known to us through clinical contacts. All known patients were included in a population-based cohort study of the distribution of clinical severity, genotype, sex, and the effect of nationwide neonatal screening.
We identified 606 patients with the disorder, born between 1915 and 2011. The CYP21A2 genotype (conferring deficiency of 21-hydroxylase) was known in 490 patients (81%). The female-to-male ratio was 1·25 in the whole cohort, but close to 1 in patients detected by the screening. We noted a sharp increase in the number of patients diagnosed in the 1960s and 1970s, and after the introduction of neonatal screening in 1986 the proportion of patients with the salt-wasting form of congenital adrenal hyperplasia increased in both sexes, from 114 (47%) of 242 individuals between 1950 and 1985 to 165 (57%) of 292 individuals between 1986 and 2011 (p=0·038). On average, five to ten children were missed every year before 1970. The non-classic form of the disorder was diagnosed more often in women than in men, which accounts for the female preponderance in our cohort.
Our findings suggest that, contrary to current belief, boys and girls with salt-wasting congenital adrenal hyperplasia were equally missed clinically. Neonatal screening improved detection of the salt-wasting form in girls as well as boys, saving lives in both sexes. The non-classic form was diagnosed more often in women than it was in men, leading to the female preponderance in this cohort.
The Swedish Research Council, the Centre of Gender Medicine at Karolinska Institutet, the Stockholm County Council, the Sällskapet Barnavård Foundation, the Stiftelsen Samariten Foundation, the Stiftelsen Frimurare Barnhuset Foundation, and the Novo Nordisk Foundation.
In foetuses at risk of virilising congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH), prenatal treatment can be offered by administration of dexamethasone (DEX) via the mother, in order to suppress foetal adrenal androgen oversecretion and prevent genital malformations. The first treated cases were described 20 years ago, and several hundred pregnancies have been reported since. There is a consensus that the treatment effectively prevents or reduces virilisation, but opinions regarding its safety differ. Rare adverse events have been reported in treated children, but no harmful effect has been documented that can be clearly attributed to the treatment. However, few treated foetuses have been followed until adolescence. Animal studies and epidemiological data point to various adverse effects of excess glucocorticoids on the developing foetus. In order to prevent virilisation effectively in females affected with CAH, the prenatal treatment needs to be instituted in the early first trimester, before prenatal diagnosis is possible. Thus, a majority of treated foetuses will receive DEX unnecessarily.The PREDEX study was initiated in Stockholm in 1999 as an open, controlled, non-randomised, multicentre trial. Participating centres are Stockholm, Bergen, Kuopio, Warsaw, London, Lyon and Barcelona. The study has been approved by the ethics committees in each country. The purpose of PREDEX is to evaluate prospectively the prenatal treatment regarding efficacy in preventing virilisation as well as to study its safety for both mothers and treated children. Children are followed until 18 years of age and a wide range of physiological, metabolic and developmental parameters are considered. In Sweden, treatment is not offered outside the frames of the trial.