Interprofessional competence can be defined as knowledge and understanding of their own and the other team members' professional roles, comprehension of communication and teamwork and collaboration in taking care of patients.
To evaluate whether students perceived that they had achieved interprofessional competence after participating in clinical teamwork training.
Six hundred and sixteen students from four undergraduate educational programs-medicine, nursing, physiotherapy and occupational therapy-participated in an interprofessional course at a clinical education ward. The students filled out pre and post questionnaires (96% response rate).
All student groups increased their perceived interprofessional competence. Occupational therapy and medical students had the greatest achievements. All student groups perceived improved knowledge of the other three professions' work (p = 0.000000) and assessed that the course had contributed to the understanding of the importance of communication and teamwork to patient care (effect size 1.0; p = 0.00002). The medical students had the greatest gain (p = 0.00093). All student groups perceived that the clarity of their own professional role had increased significantly (p = 0.00003). Occupational therapy students had the greatest gain (p = 0.000014).
Active patient based learning by working together in a real ward context seemed to be an effective means to increase collaborative and professional competence.
Adherence to guidelines in general is poor. Because asthma is the most common chronic disease in Swedish children, identifying areas for improvement regarding drug treatment for asthma is crucial.
To explore the utilisation patterns of anti-asthmatic drugs in children with asthma in relation to evidence-based guidelines.
All children visiting 14 primary healthcare centres in Stockholm, Sweden, who had their first prescription of anti-asthmatic agents dispensed between July 2006 and June 2007 were followed over 24 consecutive months. The children (1033 in total) were divided in two age groups: 0-6 years and 7-16 years. The outcome measurements were: the characteristics of the physicians initiating drug treatment; the extent to which the children were initiated on the drugs recommended in the guidelines; and the amount and frequency of drugs dispensed over time and whether the dosage texts on the prescriptions contained adequate information.
In 54% of the older children and 35% of the younger children, only one prescription for anti-asthmatic drugs was dispensed during two years of follow-up following the first prescription. In school-aged children, 50% were initiated on inhaled short-acting bronchodilating beta2-agonists (SABA) in monotherapy. Among preschool children, 64% were initiated on SABA and inhaled corticosteroids in combination. In 41% of the prescriptions dispensed, the indication was stated and in 25% the mechanism of action was stated. Drug therapy was initiated by a general practitioner in 42% of the younger children and 72% of the older children.
There is a need for improvement in adherence to guidelines in important areas. Asthma, especially among children aged 7-16 years, is usually a chronic disease and should, in many cases, be treated with anti-asthmatics counteracting inflammation. However, this was not the case in our study. In addition, the dosage texts written by the physicians did not follow recommendations and may negatively influence patient safety.
We investigated the 10-year mortality rates in a trial that tested a case-based intervention in primary care aimed at reducing the gap between evidence-based goals and clinical practice in patients with coronary heart disease (CHD).
A prospective randomized controlled pragmatic trial was undertaken in a primary care setting. New evidence-based guidelines, with intensified lipid-lowering recommendations in CHD, were mailed to all general practitioners in the region and presented at a lecture in 1995. General practitioners (n = 54) and patients with CHD (n = 88) were assigned according to their primary health care center to 2 balanced groups and randomly allocated to usual care as a control or to an active intervention. General practitioners in the intervention group participated in repeated case-based training during a 2-year period. Patients whose CHD was treated by specialists (n = 167) served as an internal specialist comparison group. Altogether, 255 consecutive patients were included. Cox regression analysis was used to detect any survival benefit of the intervention.
At 10 years, 22% of the patients in the intervention group had died as compared with 44% in the control group (P = .02), with a hazard ratio of 0.45 (95% confidence interval, 0.20-0.95). This difference was mainly due to reduced cardiovascular mortality in the intervention group (P = .01). In addition, the mortality rate of 22% in the intervention group was comparable to the rate of 23% seen in patients treated by a specialist.
Use of case-based training to implement evidence-based practice in primary care was associated with decreased mortality at 10 years in patients with CHD.
Cites: Arch Intern Med. 2007 Jan 8;167(1):68-7317210880
Cites: Am Heart J. 2007 Jan;153(1):22.e1-817174632
OBJECTIVES: This investigation was undertaken to study the costs of a Case Method Learning (CML)-supported lipid-lowering strategy in secondary prevention of coronary artery disease (CAD) in primary care. METHODS: This prospective randomized controlled trial in primary care with an additional external specialist control group in Södertälje, Stockholm County, Sweden, included 255 consecutive patients with CAD. Guidelines were mailed to all general practitioners (GPs; n=54) and presented at a common lecture. GPs who were randomized to the intervention group participated in recurrent CML dialogues at their primary health-care centers during a 2-year period. A locally well-known cardiologist served as a facilitator. Assessment of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol was performed at baseline and after 2 years. Analysis according to intention-to-treat-intervention and control groups (n=88)--was based on group affiliation at baseline. The marginal cost of lipid lowering comprised increased cost of lipid-lowering drugs in the intervention group compared with the primary care control group, cost of attendance of the GP's in the intervention group, and cost of time for preparation, travel, and seminars of the facilitator. Costs are as of 2002 with an exchange rate 1 U.S. dollar = 9.5 SEK (Swedish Crowns). RESULTS: Patients in the primary care intervention group had their LDL cholesterol reduced by 0.5 (confidence interval [CI], 0.1-0.9) mmol/L compared with the primary care control group (p
OBJECTIVE: To study the efficacy of case method learning, for general practitioners, on patients' lipid concentrations in the secondary prevention of coronary artery disease. DESIGN: Prospective controlled trial. SETTING: Södertälje, Stockholm County, Sweden. PARTICIPANTS: 255 consecutive patients with coronary artery disease. INTERVENTION: Guidelines were mailed to all general practitioners (n=54) and presented at a common lecture. General practitioners who were randomised to the intervention group participated in recurrent case method learning dialogues at their primary healthcare centres during a two year period. A locally well known cardiologist served as a facilitator. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Concentration of low density lipoprotein cholesterol at baseline and after two years. Analysis according to intention to treat (intervention and control groups (n=88)) was based on group affiliation at baseline. RESULTS: Low density lipoprotein cholesterol was reduced by 0.5 mmol/l (95% confidence interval 0.2 to 0.8 mmol/l) (9.3% (2.9% to 15.8%)) from baseline in patients in the intervention group and by 0.5 (0.1 to 0.9) mmol/l compared with controls (P
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to assess whether perceived cognitive function influences employment and return to work in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). DESIGN: Prospective longitudinal cohort study. SETTING: Health care system of Södertälje, Stockholm County, Sweden. PATIENTS: We included consecutive unselected patients less than 65 years of age with CAD and followed them during 2 years. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Gainful employment and return to work in patients with CAD. RESULTS: We found that perceived cognitive function predicts both prevalence of unemployment [OR 2.06 (95% CI: 1.36-3.13); p = 0.0006] and early retirement and sick leave due to coronary artery disease [OR 1.59 (95% CI: 1.12-2.25)] both at baseline and 2 years later. Furthermore, perceived cognitive function predicted return to work after an acute coronary event [OR 2.28 (95% CI: 1.08-4.84)]. Covariates such as age, sex, prevalence and degree of angina (CCS grade), cardiovascular risk factors and events did not change the predictive power. CONCLUSIONS: Perceived cognitive function is a hitherto unrecognised independent predictor of unemployment, sick leave and return to work in patients with coronary artery disease. Perceived cognitive function adds a new perspective on ability to gainful employment in patients with CAD. The findings might have significance both to individual care and to society.
OBJECTIVE: To assess health related quality of life (HRQL) and explore its underlying structure in a non-selected population of patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). DESIGN, SETTING AND SUBJECTS: HRQL was estimated by the disease specific Cardiac Health Profile (CHP) questionnaire and the EuroQol-VAS (EQ) in 253 consecutive unselected CAD patients in Södertälje, Stockholm County, Sweden. Explorative factor analysis was used to identify independent dimensions of HRQL. Current angina was ranked according to Canadian Cardiovascular Society Classification (CCS). RESULTS: Four independent principal factors representing perceived cognitive, physical, social and emotional functions underlying the patients' HRQL were found. Identical factors were recognized with an alternate technique. The major factor--explaining 43 % of HRQL--was perceived cognitive function reflecting ability to concentrate, activity drive, memory and problem solving. Cognitive function correlated to EQ but not to CCS. Perceived physical function/general health explained 9% of HRQL and was as expected related both to EQ and CCS. Total CHP scores differed significantly to those of healthy controls. CONCLUSIONS: Perceived cognitive function seems to be a major determinant of HRQL in CAD patients. This, in addition to earlier reports of possible prognostic information of reduced cognitive function, would prompt us to propose that HRQL assessments should include questions aimed to assess cognitive function.
Decision-making is central for general practitioners (GP). Practice guidelines are important tools in this process but implementation of them in the complex context of primary care is a challenge. The purpose of this study was to explore how GPs approach, learn from and use practice guidelines in their day-to-day decision-making process in primary care.
A qualitative approach using focus-group interviews was chosen in order to provide in-depth information. The participants were 22 GPs with a median of seven years of experience in primary care, representing seven primary healthcare centres in Stockholm, Sweden in 2011. The interviews focused on how the GPs use guidelines in their decision-making, factors that influence their decision how to approach these guidelines, and how they could encourage the learning process in routine practice.Data were analysed by qualitative content analysis. Meaning units were condensed and grouped in categories. After interpreting the content in the categories, themes were created.
Three themes were conceptualized. The first theme emphasized to use guidelines by interactive contextualized dialogues. The categories underpinning this theme: 1. Feedback by peer-learning 2. Feedback by collaboration, mutual learning, and equality between specialties, identified important ways to achieve this learning dialogue. Confidence was central in the second theme, learning that establishes confidence to provide high quality care. Three aspects of confidence were identified in the categories of this theme: 1. Confidence by confirmation, 2. Confidence by reliability and 3. Confidence by evaluation of own results. In the third theme, learning by use of relevant evidence in the decision-making process, we identified two categories: 1. Design and lay-out visualizing the evidence 2. Accessibility adapted to the clinical decision-making process as prerequisites for using the practice guidelines.
Decision-making in primary care is a dual process that involves use of intuitive and analytic thinking in a balanced way in order to provide high quality care. Key aspects of effective learning in this clinical decision-making process were: contextualized dialogue, which was based on the GPs' own experiences, feedback on own results and easy access to short guidelines perceived as trustworthy.
Cites: Health Policy. 2013 Nov;113(1-2):180-723910731