Several candidate genes have been implicated in susceptibility for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), a complex autoimmune disease. The proposed genes include members of the type I interferon (IFN) pathway and genes involved in immunological defense functions. Our aim was to systematically replicate 6 such genes, TYK2, IRF5, CTLA4, PDCD1, FCGR2A, and NOD2.
Single-nucleotide polymorphisms in TYK2, IRF5, CTLA4, PDCD1, FCGR2A, and NOD2 were genotyped in 277 SLE patients and 356 healthy controls from Finland, giving a power of 42%-70% for different genes at published allele frequencies.
Significant association was seen for rs2304256 (p = 0.0001) and rs12720270 (p = 0.0031) in TYK2 and rs10954213 (p = 0.0043) in IRF5 in our samples, but not for the other genes. We found evidence for genetic interaction (p = 0.014) between rs2304256 in TYK2 and rs10954213 in IRF5, both members of the type I IFN pathway, strengthening the role of the type I IFN pathway in the pathogenesis of SLE.
The IFN pathway genes IRF5 and TYK2 may act epistatically in increasing risk for SLE, but our lack of replication does not exclude effects of the other genes studied.
Human polymorphisms affecting gut epithelial barrier and interactions with bacteria predispose to the inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC). The intestinal transporter PepT1, encoded by the SLC15A1 gene, mediates intracellular uptake of bacterial products that can induce inflammation and NF-kappaB activation upon binding to NOD2, a protein often mutated in CD. Hence, we tested SLC15A1 polymorphisms for association with IBD.
Twelve SLC15A1 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were genotyped in 1783 individuals from 2 cohorts of Swedish and Finnish IBD patients and controls. An in vitro system was set up to evaluate the potential impact of SLC15A1 polymorphism on PepT1 transporter function by quantification of NOD2-mediated activation of NF-kappaB.
The common allele (C) of a coding polymorphism (rs2297322, Ser117Asn) was associated with CD susceptibility both in Sweden and in Finland, but with genetic effects in opposite directions (risk and protection, respectively). The best evidence of association was found in both populations when the analysis was performed on individuals not carrying NOD2 common risk alleles (Sweden allelic P = 0.0007, OR 1.97, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.34-2.92; Finland genotype P = 0.0013, OR 0.63, 95% CI 0.44-0.90). The PepT1 variant encoded by the C allele (PepT1-Ser117) was associated with reduced signaling downstream of NOD2 (P
Lupus erythematosus (LE) is a heterogeneous disease ranging from mainly skin-restricted manifestations (discoid LE [DLE] and subacute cutaneous LE) to a progressive multisystem disease (systemic LE [SLE]). Genetic association studies have recently identified several strong susceptibility genes for SLE, including integrin alpha M (ITGAM), also known as CD11b, whereas the genetic background of DLE is less clear.
To specifically investigate whether ITGAM is a susceptibility gene not only for SLE, but also for cutaneous DLE, we genotyped 177 patients with DLE, 85 patients with sporadic SLE, 190 index cases from SLE families and 395 population control individuals from Finland for nine genetic markers at the ITGAM locus. SLE patients were further subdivided by the presence or absence of discoid rash and renal involvement. In addition, 235 Finnish and Swedish patients positive for Ro/SSA-autoantibodies were included in a subphenotype analysis. Analysis of the ITGAM coding variant rs1143679 showed highly significant association to DLE in patients without signs of systemic disease (P-value ?=?4.73?10(-11), OR ?=?3.20, 95% CI ?=?2.23-4.57). Significant association was also detected to SLE patients (P-value ?=?8.29?10(-6), OR ?=?2.14, 95% CI ?=?1.52-3.00), and even stronger association was found when stratifying SLE patients by presence of discoid rash (P-value ?=?3.59?10(-8), OR ?=?3.76, 95% CI ?=?2.29-6.18).
We propose ITGAM as a novel susceptibility gene for cutaneous DLE. The risk effect is independent of systemic involvement and has an even stronger genetic influence on the risk of DLE than of SLE.
Lupus erythematosus (LE) is a heterogeneous disease ranging from skin-restricted manifestations to a progressive multisystem disease. The specific skin lesions include chronic cutaneous, subacute cutaneous and acute cutaneous LE. Both genetic and environmental factors are involved in the development of LE. However, reports on the genetic background of cutaneous lupus erythematosus (CLE) forms, namely discoid (DLE) and subacute cutaneous lupus erythematosus (SCLE), are sparse. We investigated whether the known systemic LE (SLE) susceptibility genes also predispose to CLE. Altogether, 219 Finnish patients with DLE or SCLE and 356 healthy controls were recruited. Single nucleotide polymorphisms tagging reported risk genes were genotyped. Tyrosine kinase 2 (TYK2) rs2304256 was associated with increased risk of DLE (P = 0.012, OR = 1.47, 95% CI = 1.01-1.98). Expression of TYK2 was demonstrated by immunohistochemistry in macrophage-like cells and neutrophils and interferon regulatory factor 5 (IRF5) in macrophage- and fibroblast-like cells of DLE, SCLE and SLE skin. IRF5 rs10954213 showed association with DLE (P = 0.017, OR = 1.40, 95% CI = 1.06-1.86) and SCLE (P = 0.022, OR = 1.87, 95% CI = 1.09-3.21). A haplotype of cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA4) showed association with DLE (P = 0.0065, OR = 2.51, 95% CI = 1.25-5.04). Our results show that the TYK2, IRF5 and CTLA4 genes previously associated with SLE also confer risk for DLE and SCLE, suggesting that different LE subphenotypes may share pathogenetic pathways.
To investigate whether 10 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and haplotypes in the STAT4 gene, previously associated with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) in a Swedish case-control cohort, are also associated with SLE risk in a Finnish SLE family cohort.
Genotyping was performed in 192 Finnish families, with 237 affected subjects and their healthy relatives, using the SNPstream genotyping system.
Transmission disequilibrium test analysis provided the strongest signal of association for two linked SNPs: rs7582694 (p=0.002, OR=2.57) and rs10181656 (p=0.001, OR=2.53). Haplotype association analysis using a sliding window approach was also performed and showed that the strongest association signal originates from SNPs in intron 3 of STAT4.
The main association signal for STAT4 with SLE previously reported in Caucasians is the same in the Finnish population. This is the first study that confirms the association of STAT4 with SLE in a family cohort.