Reduced kidney function confers a higher risk of acute kidney injury at the time of an inciting event, such as sepsis. Whether the same is true in those with reduced renal mass from living kidney donation is unknown.
We conducted a population-based matched cohort study of all living kidney donors in the province of Ontario, Canada who underwent donor nephrectomy from 1992 to 2009. We manually reviewed the medical records of these living kidney donors and linked this information to provincial health care databases. Non-donors were selected from the healthiest segment of the general population.
There were 2027 donors and 20 270 matched non-donors. The median age was 43 years (interquartile range 34-50) and individuals were followed for a median of 6.6 years (maximum 17.7 years). The primary outcome was acute dialysis during any hospital stay. Reasons for hospitalization included infectious diseases, cardiovascular diseases and hematological malignancies. Only one donor received acute dialysis in follow-up (6.5 events per 100 000 person-years), a rate which was statistically no different than 14 non-donors (9.4 events per 100 000 person-years).
These results are reassuring for the practice of living kidney donation. Longer follow-up of this and other donor cohorts will provide more precise estimates about this risk.
In living kidney donation, transplant professionals consider the rights of a living kidney donor and recipient to keep their personal health information confidential and the need to disclose this information to the other for informed consent. In incompatible kidney exchange, personal health information from multiple living donors and recipients may affect decision making and outcomes.
We conducted a survey to understand and compare the preferences of potential donors (n = 43), potential recipients (n = 73), and health professionals (n = 41) toward sharing personal health information (in total 157 individuals).
When considering traditional live-donor transplantation, donors and recipients generally agreed that a recipient's health information should be shared with the donor (86 and 80%, respectively) and that a donor's information should be shared with the recipient (97 and 89%, respectively). When considering incompatible kidney exchange, donors and recipients generally agreed that a recipient's information should be shared with all donors and recipients involved in the transplant (85 and 85%, respectively) and that a donor's information should also be shared with all involved (95 and 90%, respectively). These results were contrary to attitudes expressed by transplant professionals, who frequently disagreed about whether such information should be shared.
Future policies and practice could facilitate greater sharing of personal health information in living kidney donation. This requires a consideration of which information is relevant, how to put it in context, and a plan to obtain consent from all concerned.
Cites: Am J Transplant. 2003 Jul;3(7):830-412814474
Cites: Am J Transplant. 2009 Jul;9(7):1558-7319459792
Cites: Transplantation. 2004 Aug 27;78(4):491-215446304
Cites: Lancet. 1992 Oct 3;340(8823):807-101357243
Cites: Can J Surg. 2004 Dec;47(6):408-1315646438
Cites: Transplantation. 2005 Mar 27;79(6 Suppl):S53-6615785361
Cites: HIV Med. 2006 Apr;7(3):133-916494626
Cites: Ann Intern Med. 2006 Aug 1;145(3):185-9616880460
Escherichia coli O157:H7 is one cause of acute bacterial gastroenteritis, which can be devastating in outbreak situations. We studied the risk of cardiovascular disease following such an outbreak in Walkerton, Ontario, in May 2000.
In this community-based cohort study, we linked data from the Walkerton Health Study (2002-2008) to Ontario's large healthcare databases. We included 4 groups of adults: 3 groups of Walkerton participants (153 with severe gastroenteritis, 414 with mild gastroenteritis, 331 with no gastroenteritis) and a group of 11 263 residents from the surrounding communities that were unaffected by the outbreak. The primary outcome was a composite of death or first major cardiovascular event (admission to hospital for acute myocardial infarction, stroke or congestive heart failure, or evidence of associated procedures). The secondary outcome was first major cardiovascular event censored for death. Adults were followed for an average of 7.4 years.
During the study period, 1174 adults (9.7%) died or experienced a major cardiovascular event. Compared with residents of the surrounding communities, the risk of death or cardiovascular event was not elevated among Walkerton participants with severe or mild gastroenteritis (hazard ratio [HR] for severe gastroenteritis 0.74, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.38-1.43, mild gastroenteritis HR 0.64, 95% CI 0.42-0.98). Compared with Walkerton participants who had no gastroenteritis, risk of death or cardiovascular event was not elevated among participants with severe or mild gastroenteritis.
There was no increase in the risk of cardiovascular disease in the decade following acute infection during a major E. coli O157:H7 outbreak.
To determine whether people who donate a kidney have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease.
Retrospective population based matched cohort study.
All people who were carefully selected to become a living kidney donor in the province of Ontario, Canada, between 1992 and 2009. The information in donor charts was manually reviewed and linked to provincial healthcare databases. Matched non-donors were selected from the healthiest segment of the general population. A total of 2028 donors and 20,280 matched non-donors were followed for a median of 6.5 years (maximum 17.7 years). Median age was 43 at the time of donation (interquartile range 34-50) and 50 at the time of follow-up (42-58).
The primary outcome was a composite of time to death or first major cardiovascular event. The secondary outcome was time to first major cardiovascular event censored for death.
The risk of the primary outcome of death and major cardiovascular events was lower in donors than in non-donors (2.8 v 4.1 events per 1000 person years; hazard ratio 0.66, 95% confidence interval 0.48 to 0.90). The risk of major cardiovascular events censored for death was no different in donors than in non-donors (1.7 v 2.0 events per 1000 person years; 0.85, 0.57 to 1.27). Results were similar in all sensitivity analyses. Older age and lower income were associated with a higher risk of death and major cardiovascular events in both donors and non-donors when each group was analysed separately.
The risk of major cardiovascular events in donors is no higher in the first decade after kidney donation compared with a similarly healthy segment of the general population. While we will continue to follow people in this study, these interim results add to the evidence base supporting the safety of the practice among carefully selected donors.
Cites: Ann Intern Med. 2006 Aug 1;145(3):185-9616880460
Cites: J Urol. 2011 May;185(5):1820-521420113
Cites: Int Surg. 2010 Oct-Dec;95(4):343-921309419
Cites: N Engl J Med. 2010 Aug 19;363(8):797-820818884
Cites: Am J Kidney Dis. 2010 Sep;56(3):486-9520557989
Cites: BMJ. 2003 Jan 25;326(7382):21912543843
Cites: JAMA. 2003 Apr 2;289(13):1652-812672733
Cites: JAMA. 2003 Jun 25;289(24):3241-212824204
Cites: Lancet. 2004 May 29;363(9423):1751-615172772
Cites: N Engl J Med. 2004 Aug 5;351(6):543-5115295047
Cites: Transplantation. 1997 Oct 15;64(7):976-89381544
Cites: N Engl J Med. 1999 Oct 28;341(18):1359-6710536129
Cites: Transplantation. 2005 Mar 27;79(6 Suppl):S53-6615785361
Cites: BMJ. 2005 Apr 23;330(7497):960-215845982
Cites: Am J Transplant. 2006 Jun;6(6):1479-8516686774
When evaluating a living kidney donor and recipient with a father-child relationship, it may be discovered that the two are not biologically related. We analyzed data from the United Network for Organ Sharing and the Canadian Organ Replacement Registry to determine how frequently this occurs. We surveyed 102 potential donors, recipients, and transplant professionals for their opinion on whether such information should be disclosed to the donor-recipient pair. We communicated with transplant professionals from 13 Canadian centers on current practices for handling this information. In the United States and Canada, the prevalence of father-child living kidney donor-recipient pairs with less than a one-haplotype human leukocyte antigen match (i.e., misattributed paternity) is between 1% and 3%, or approximately 0.25% to 0.5% of all living kidney donations. Opinions about revealing this information were variable: 23% strongly favored disclosure; whereas, 24% were strongly opposed to it. Current practices are variable; some centers disclose this information, whereas others do not. Discovering misattributed paternity in living donation is uncommon but can occur. Opinions on how to deal with this sensitive information are variable. Discussion among transplant professionals will facilitate best practices and policies. Strategies adopted by some centers can be considered.
Chronic kidney disease increases the risk of bone fragility fractures (osteoporotic fractures). Living kidney donors lose 50% of their renal mass and show changes in calcium homeostasis. We studied whether living kidney donation increases the risk of fragility fracture.
Retrospective matched-cohort study.
We reviewed the medical charts of all 2,015 adults in Ontario, Canada, who donated a kidney between 1992 and 2009 (surgeries performed across 5 transplant programs). We linked this information to health care databases and randomly selected 20,150 matched nondonors from the healthiest portion of the general population. Median age was 43 (95% CI, 24-50) years at study enrollment. Donors and nondonors were then followed up for a median of 6.6 years and a maximum of 17.7 years.
Living donor nephrectomy.
The primary outcome was lower- and upper-extremity fragility fractures. Individuals who reached 66 years or older in follow-up had bisphosphonate prescriptions recorded.
The rate of fragility fracture was no higher in donors compared with nondonors (16.4 vs 18.7 events/10,000 person-years; rate ratio, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.58-1.32). Results were similar in multiple additional analyses. There was little difference in the proportion of older adults in follow-up who received a bisphosphonate prescription (17.1% vs 15.2%; P = 0.4).
These are interim results. Ongoing surveillance of this and other donor cohorts is warranted to be sure an association does not manifest with longer follow-up.
To date, there is no evidence of increased fragility fracture risk in living kidney donors. Our results meet an information need and are reassuring for the safety of the practice.
In Canada, patients are increasingly receiving hemodialysis (HD) in satellite units, which are closer to their community but further from tertiary care hospitals and their nephrologists. The process of care is different in the satellites with fewer visits from nephrologists and reliance on remote communication. The objective of this study is to compare clinical performance target attainment and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in patients receiving HD in satellite versus in-center units.
The London Health Sciences Centre in London, Ontario, Canada, has both tertiary care center and satellite HD units. All eligible patients who received dialysis treatment at one of these units as of July 24, 2008, were enrolled into a cross-sectional study (n = 522). Patient attainment of hemoglobin, albumin, calcium-phosphate (Ca-P) product, Kt/V, and vascular access targets were compared. Participants were also administered the Kidney Disease Quality of Life Short-Form questionnaire.
Satellite patients were more likely to attain clinical performance targets for albumin (adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 4.87 [95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.13 to 11.14]), hemoglobin (OR = 1.59 [95% CI: 1.08 to 2.35]), and Ca-P product (OR = 2.02 [95% CI: 1.14 to 3.60]), as well as for multiple targets (P
It is unknown whether favorable long-term data on the safety of living kidney donation can be extrapolated to populations at higher risk of chronic kidney disease. Indigenous people (i.e., Aboriginals) have a high prevalence of risk factors for chronic kidney disease and Aboriginal living donor outcomes need to be defined.
We performed a retrospective cohort study of all 38 Aboriginal donors donating at our center since 1970 and 76 randomly selected white donor controls to determine the long-term rates of hypertension, diabetes, and renal function postdonation.
Follow-up was obtained for 91% of both Aboriginal and white donors (mean follow-up approximately 14 years). Hypertension has been diagnosed more frequently among Aboriginal donors (Ab 42% vs. white 19%, P=0.02). Notably, all 11 Aboriginal donors more than 20 years postdonation have developed hypertension. Diabetes has also been diagnosed more frequently among Aboriginal donors (Ab 19% vs. white 2%, P=0.005), including 5 of 11 (45%) more than 20 years postdonation. Follow-up estimated glomerular filtration rate was higher in Aboriginal donors (Ab 77+/-17 vs. white 67+/-13 mL/min/1.73 m, P=0.002) but not significantly different in adjusted analyses. One Aboriginal donor developed end-stage renal disease 14 years postdonation.
Aboriginal living kidney donors at our center have high rates of hypertension and diabetes on long-term follow-up, although renal function is preserved to date. This profile is similar to that of the general unselected Aboriginal population despite detailed medical evaluation before donation. These findings have important implications for donor counseling and may have implications for other high-risk donor populations.