Very few studies have evaluated both parathyroid hormone (PTH) and 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] and their effects on bone mass in children.
We studied the associations of serum 25(OH)D and intact PTH (iPTH) with bone mineral content (BMC) and bone mineral density (BMD) at different bone sites and the relation between serum 25(OH)D and iPTH in early pubertal and prepubertal Finnish girls.
The subjects were 10-12-y-old girls (n = 193) at Tanner stage 1 or 2, who reported a mean (+/- SD) dietary calcium intake of 733 +/- 288 mg/d. 25(OH)D, iPTH, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b (TRAP 5b), urinary calcium excretion, BMC, areal BMD, and volumetric BMD were assessed by using different methods.
Thirty-two percent of the girls were vitamin D deficient [serum 25(OH)D
Several factors may increase fracture risk, among them reduced bone mineral density (BMD), increased bone resorption, microarchitectural deterioration of bone, increased fall risk, and decreased muscle strength. We have previously reported that PvuII polymorphism of the estrogen receptor-alpha (ER alpha) gene is associated with bone loss rate, fracture risk, and response to hormone replacement therapy (HRT) in early postmenopausal Finnish women.
We studied the influence of the ER alpha genotype on fall risk and muscle strength in a 5-year randomized HRT trial of 331 early postmenopausal women (subgroup of the population-based OSTPRE study, Kuopio, Finland). A 5-year postal inquiry in May 1994 included questions on falls during the previous 12 months. Grip strength was measured with dynamometer. The ER alpha gene polymorphism was analysed using PCR and PvuII restriction enzyme digestion. RESULTS. In all, 97 out of the 331 women reported falls. Half of those (56%) were slip falls, mostly during the winter season. In the HRT group, the ER alpha genotype was associated with fall risk (P = 0.002, logistic regression). The risk of falls (RR) was higher in women with the PP genotype than in those with the Pp (RR = 5.26, 95% CI 1.98-13.94, P = 0.001) or the pp (RR = 3.84, 95% CI 1.46-10.12, P = 0.007) genotype. When the falls were divided into slip (environment-related) and non-slip (endogenous) falls, the non-slip falls were associated with the genotype (P = 0.004), but the slip falls were not so clearly (P = 0.061). When all falls and non-slip falls were adjusted to the number of chronic health disorders and the variable time-since-menopause, the difference between the genotypes persisted (P = 0.003 and P = 0.010, respectively). In the non-HRT group, the ER alpha genotype was not associated with fall risk. The baseline or the 5-year grip strength values were not influenced by the ER alpha genotype. In conclusion, ER alpha polymorphism is associated with fall risk, especially with non-slip falls, in early postmenopausal Finnish women during the HRT. We have previously reported that, during HRT, women with the P allele have decreased fracture risk and that they may preferentially derive benefit from the positive effect of HRT on BMD. This suggests that the influence of ER alpha polymorphism may depend on the target tissue (bone versus the nervous system).
In these early postmenopausal, non-osteoporotic and relatively healthy women, the increased fall risk associated with the PP genotype was not associated with increased fracture risk, possibly due to improved bone strength during the HRT although falls generally predispose to fractures.
Genetic susceptibility to fractures may be detectable in early childhood. We evaluated the associations between the polymorphic PvuII site of the COL1A2 gene and bone properties assessed by different modalities (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry; peripheral quantitative computed tomography; gel coupling scanning quantitative ultrasonometry; ultrasound bone sonometry), bone turnover markers, and the occurrence of fractures in 244 prepubertal Finnish girls. Tanner stage and physical characteristics did not differ significantly among girls with different COL1A2 genotypes. The polymorphism was not significantly associated with different bone properties or any of the bone turnover markers when girls at Tanner stage I (prepuberty) and stage II (early puberty) were considered together, but there was a significant association with spine bone mineral content (BMC) and bone mineral density (BMD), as well as with speed of sound (SOS) (P
The associations of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] with plasma lipids remain controversial in children.
To examine the associations and interactions of 25(OH)D and related gene variants with lipids in children.
Population sample of 419 prepubertal white children aged 6 to 8 years.
25(OH)D, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, and triglycerides.
Serum 25(OH)D was negatively associated with total cholesterol (ß = -0.141, P = 0.004), LDL cholesterol (ß = -0.112, P = 0.023), HDL cholesterol (ß = -0.150, P = 0.002), and triglycerides (ß = -0.104, P = 0.035) adjusted for age and sex. Associations of 25(OH)D with total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and HDL cholesterol remained after adjustment for adiposity, physical activity, sedentary behavior, diet, daylight time, and parental education. Children in the highest quartile of 25(OH)D had the lowest total cholesterol (P = 0.022) and LDL cholesterol (P = 0.026) adjusted for age and sex. Cytochrome P450 family 2 subfamily R member 1 (CYP2R1) rs12794714, CYP2R1 rs10741657, and vitamin D binding protein (DBP) rs2282679 were associated with 25(OH)D adjusted for age and sex. CYP2R1 rs12794714 was associated with total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol and C10orf88 rs6599638 with HDL cholesterol adjusted for age, sex, and 25(OH)D. The gene variants did not explain or modify the associations of 25(OH)D with lipids.
25(OH)D was independently and inversely associated with total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and HDL cholesterol. CYP2R1 rs12794714, CYP2R1 rs10741657, and DBP rs2282679 were associated with 25(OH)D. CYP2R1 rs12794714 was associated with total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol and chromosome 10 open reading frame 88 (C10orf88) rs6599638 with HDL cholesterol independent of 25(OH)D. None of the gene variants modified the associations of 25(OH)D with lipids. Further studies are needed to detect the mechanisms for the associations of 25(OH)D with lipids.