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The association between pathological gambling and attempted suicide: findings from a national survey in Canada.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature160704
Source
Can J Psychiatry. 2007 Sep;52(9):605-12
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-2007
Author
Stephen C Newman
Angus H Thompson
Author Affiliation
Department of Psychiatry, Mackenzie Centre, University of Alberta, Edmonton. stephen.newman@ualberta.ca
Source
Can J Psychiatry. 2007 Sep;52(9):605-12
Date
Sep-2007
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Canada - epidemiology
Female
Gambling - psychology
Humans
Impulse Control Disorders - epidemiology - psychology
Male
Middle Aged
Questionnaires
Suicide, Attempted - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Abstract
To examine the association between pathological gambling (PG) and attempted suicide in a nationally representative sample of Canadians.
Data came from the Canadian Community Health Survey, Cycle 1.2, conducted in 2002, in which 36 984 subjects, aged 15 years or older, were interviewed. Logistic regression was performed with attempted suicide (in the past year) as the dependent variable. The independent variables were PG, major depression, alcohol dependence, drug dependence, and mental health care (in the past year), as well as a range of sociodemographic variables. Survey weights and bootstrap methods were used to account for the complex survey design.
In the final logistic regression model, which included terms for PG, major depression, alcohol dependence, and mental health care, as well as age, sex, education, and income, the odds ratio for PG and attempted suicide was 3.43 (95% confidence interval, 1.37 to 8.60).
PG (in the past year) and attempted suicide (in the past year) are associated in a nationally representative sample of Canadians. However, it is not possible to say from these data whether this represents a causal relation.
PubMed ID
17953165 View in PubMed
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The association of treatment of depressive episodes and work productivity.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature128978
Source
Can J Psychiatry. 2011 Dec;56(12):743-50
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2011
Author
Carolyn S Dewa
Angus H Thompson
Phillip Jacobs
Author Affiliation
Centre for Research on Employment and Workplace Health, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Toronto, Ontario. carolyn_dewa@camh.net
Source
Can J Psychiatry. 2011 Dec;56(12):743-50
Date
Dec-2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Alberta
Cost of Illness
Depressive Disorder - psychology - therapy
Efficiency - physiology
Employment - manpower - psychology
Female
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Psychiatric Status Rating Scales
Questionnaires
Severity of Illness Index
Abstract
About one-third of the annual $51 billion cost of mental illnesses is related to productivity losses. However, few studies have examined the association of treatment and productivity. The purpose of our research is to examine the association of depression and its treatment and work productivity.
Our analyses used data from 2737 adults aged between 18 and 65 years who participated in a large-scale community survey of employed and recently employed people in Alberta. Using the World Health Organization's Health and Work Performance Questionnaire, a productivity variable was created to capture high productivity (above the 75th percentile). We used regression methods to examine the association of mental disorders and their treatment and productivity, controlling for demographic factors and job characteristics.
In the sample, about 8.5% experienced a depressive episode in the past year. The regression results indicated that people who had a severe depressive episode were significantly less likely to be highly productive. Compared with people who had a moderate or severe depressive episode who did not have treatment, those who did have treatment were significantly more likely to be highly productive. However, about one-half of workers with a moderate or severe depressive episode did not receive treatment.
Our results corroborate those in the literature that indicate mental disorders are significantly associated with decreased work productivity. In addition, these findings indicate that treatment for these disorders is significantly associated with productivity. Our results also highlight the low proportion of workers with a mental disorder who receive treatment.
PubMed ID
22152643 View in PubMed
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Improving reliability of the assessment of the life course of schizophrenia.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature139371
Source
Can J Psychiatry. 2010 Nov;55(11):729-35
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-2010
Author
Angus H Thompson
Stephen C Newman
Helene Orn
Roger C Bland
Author Affiliation
Institute of Health Economics, Edmonton, Alberta. gthompson@ihe.ca
Source
Can J Psychiatry. 2010 Nov;55(11):729-35
Date
Nov-2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Age of Onset
Alberta
Antipsychotic Agents - therapeutic use
Cohort Studies
Cross-Sectional Studies
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Hospitalization - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Models, Theoretical
Schizophrenia - diagnosis - drug therapy - epidemiology
Schizophrenic Psychology
Treatment Outcome
Young Adult
Abstract
Life course studies of schizophrenia that have used a 3-phase model (onset, course, and outcome) have had their use restricted owing to differences in definition and methodology. The purpose of this investigation was to describe life course data in mathematical terms and to compare the results with the findings from other life course studies.
The study population was comprised of 128 of 137 people who were first admitted for schizophrenia to 1 of the 2 mental hospitals in Alberta in 1963 and followed until 1997 or death. Patient evaluations were based on retrospective and contemporaneous information collected from the patients and hospital files, treatment records, and family members. Mathematically derived ratings were formulated for course, outcome, and onset (pre-admission years). The distribution of the resulting 8 life course types was compared with profiles drawn from other such studies reported in the literature.
The use of mathematical descriptions of onset, course, and outcome produced profiles that did not closely match the results of other investigations, largely owing to inconsistency across studies. Further, the present approach to outcome measurement produced results that were less favourable than those found in other studies.
Studies on the life course of schizophrenia could be made more comparable by specifying mathematically expressed operational definitions of onset, course, and outcome. Nonetheless, the use of the term outcome can be questioned as it implies an assessment at a specific time rather than providing a summary statement of the quality of a life.
PubMed ID
21070701 View in PubMed
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Intentional and unintentional injuries across health regions in Alberta, Canada: an implication for policy.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature177087
Source
Crisis. 2004;25(4):156-60
Publication Type
Article
Date
2004
Author
Angus H Thompson
Kim Borden
Kathy L Belton
Author Affiliation
Alberta Center for Injury Control and Research, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada. gus.thompson@ualberta.ca
Source
Crisis. 2004;25(4):156-60
Date
2004
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Accident prevention
Accidents - statistics & numerical data
Canada - epidemiology
Delivery of Health Care, Integrated - statistics & numerical data - trends
Hospitalization - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Policy Making
Principal Component Analysis
Self-Injurious Behavior - psychology
Suicide - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Violence - statistics & numerical data
Abstract
The growing practice of including intentional injuries (suicide and interpersonal violence) under the injury control umbrella has produced some controversy. The present study was designed to determine whether or not there might be an empirical basis for this initiative from an ecological point of view by examining the associations among unintentional and intentional injuries across 17 geographically defined health regions. The study was set in the Province of Alberta, Canada, where health services were delivered to a population of 2.96 million persons in 1999 through 17 regional health authorities. The results of a principal components analysis showed that nearly all causes of injury-hospitalization loaded on a single factor. It was not possible to produce separate factors for intentional and unintentional injuries. The strong intercorrelation among all measures suggests that there is an empirical basis for the view that intentional and unintentional injuries belong under the same conceptual umbrella, at least at the ecological level.
PubMed ID
15580850 View in PubMed
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Internet users' prior psychological and social difficulties.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature181697
Source
Cyberpsychol Behav. 2003 Dec;6(6):585-90
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2003
Author
Mary V Modayil
Angus H Thompson
Stanley Varnhagen
Douglas R Wilson
Author Affiliation
Department of Public Health Sciences, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada.
Source
Cyberpsychol Behav. 2003 Dec;6(6):585-90
Date
Dec-2003
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Canada - epidemiology
Data Collection
Humans
Internet - utilization
Interpersonal Relations
Interview, Psychological
Life Style
Male
Middle Aged
Prevalence
Psychological Tests
Social Behavior
Social Behavior Disorders - epidemiology
User-Computer Interface
Abstract
This study addressed the hypothesis that frequent Internet use produces social and psychological difficulties. An Internet-administered survey was given to a sample of Internet users. Comparisons were made between this sample and general population norms on a selection of social and psychological variables. Internet users showed a more detrimental mean rating on 11 of 13 of the variables (two measures of social contact were more positive among the user sample). However, for those variables for which time of onset was available (n = 7), the disorder had begun 5-22 years before Internet use. These findings are not in accord with the theory that Internet use causes disorder or social difficulty, and suggest the possibility that the Internet may provide a particular benefit for certain individuals who have already displayed these personal and social difficulties.
PubMed ID
14756924 View in PubMed
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Medical and psychiatric comorbidity and health care use among children 6 to 17 years old.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature175851
Source
Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2005 Mar;159(3):231-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-2005
Author
Donald W Spady
Donald P Schopflocher
Lawrence W Svenson
Angus H Thompson
Author Affiliation
Department of Pediatrics, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada. dspady@ualberta.ca
Source
Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2005 Mar;159(3):231-7
Date
Mar-2005
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Anemia, Iron-Deficiency - epidemiology
Bronchitis - epidemiology
Canada - epidemiology
Child
Comorbidity
Developmental Disabilities - epidemiology
Epilepsy - epidemiology
Female
Female Urogenital Diseases - epidemiology
Humans
Male
Male Urogenital Diseases
Menstruation Disturbances - epidemiology
Mental Disorders - epidemiology
Patient Acceptance of Health Care - statistics & numerical data
Poisoning - epidemiology
Sex Distribution
Sexual Behavior
Sinusitis - epidemiology
Abstract
The association of psychiatric disorders (PDs) with other PDs and medical disorders (MDs) has been insufficiently explored in children and adolescents.
To estimate medical and psychiatric comorbidity present in children with PDs and to determine the medical service usage of children with PDs.
We use administrative health care data to describe the health care provided for study children. Psychiatric disorders were classified into the following 3 categories: psychosis, emotion, and behavior. We used logistic regression to assess medical comorbidity for each category. Psychiatric comorbidity was determined using chi(2) test analysis. Health care use was determined by comparing the frequency of visits for MDs and PDs between children with PDs and children without PDs.
We studied 406,640 children (50.6% male) between 6 and 17 years old, living in Alberta, Canada, during the fiscal year April 1, 1995, through March 31, 1996.
A PD was diagnosed in 32,214 (60.3% male) children. Psychiatric comorbidity was present in 13.6% of the children; comorbidity existed in all 3 psychiatric groups and peaked in postpubertal children. More girls than boys had significant medical comorbidity. Significant odds ratios (ORs) for girls varied from 1.2 (behavior and sinusitis, bronchitis, and chronic disorders; psychosis, and menstrual problems) to 15.3 (behavior and developmental delay). Among boys, the highest OR was seen with the combination of behavior and developmental delay (OR, 8.3) and psychosis and poisoning (OR, 8.2). With ORs ranging from 4.6 to 15.3, developmental delay consistently had high ORs for both sexes and all 3 types of PDs. Poisoning also had high ORs (3.3-14.1) with all 3 PDs and both sexes. Among girls, disorders associated with pregnancy and the genitourinary system had modest associations (OR, 1.9-2.2, for behavior) to moderate (OR, 2.5-4.0, for emotion). Children with PDs had significantly greater medical service usage than did children without PDs. Girls had greater medical health care usage than boys. Psychiatric service usage was similar for both sexes.
Medical and psychiatric comorbidity exist in children with PDs. Girls are more commonly affected. Health care usage is higher in children with PDs.
PubMed ID
15753265 View in PubMed
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A population-based study of the association between pathological gambling and attempted suicide.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature185709
Source
Suicide Life Threat Behav. 2003;33(1):80-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
2003
Author
Stephen C Newman
Angus H Thompson
Author Affiliation
Department of Psychiatry, Mackenzie Centre, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. stephen.newman@ualberta.ca
Source
Suicide Life Threat Behav. 2003;33(1):80-7
Date
2003
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Canada - epidemiology
Catchment Area (Health)
Female
Gambling
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Population Surveillance
Suicide, Attempted - statistics & numerical data
Abstract
The association between pathological gambling and attempted suicide was examined using data from a prevalence study conducted in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. The sample size was 7,214, the questionnaire was the Diagnostic Interview Schedule, and diagnoses were made on a lifetime basis according to DSM-III criteria. Logistic regression analysis was performed, with attempted suicide as the dependent variable. The odds ratio for pathological gambling was statistically significant (odds ratio = 4.91; 95% confidence interval = [1.41,17.1]) when major depression was the only comorbid mental disorder in the model. As terms for additional mental disorders were included, pathological gambling ceased to be statistically significant. It was concluded that a history of pathological gambling is associated with previous attempted suicide, and that the association may be due to a common factor--"mental illness."
PubMed ID
12710543 View in PubMed
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Post-maternity outcomes following health care reform in Alberta: 1992-1996.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature186008
Source
Can J Public Health. 2003 Mar-Apr;94(2):104-8
Publication Type
Article
Author
Angus H Thompson
Arif Alibhai
L Duncan Saunders
David C Cumming
Narmatha Thanigasalam
Author Affiliation
Alberta Centre for Injury Control & Research and the Department of Psychiatry, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB. gus.thompson@ualberta.ca
Source
Can J Public Health. 2003 Mar-Apr;94(2):104-8
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Alberta
Delivery, Obstetric - methods
Female
Health Care Reform - legislation & jurisprudence
Health Services Research
Humans
Length of Stay - statistics & numerical data - trends
Patient Readmission - statistics & numerical data - trends
Postpartum Period
Pregnancy
Pregnancy Outcome - epidemiology
Abstract
The effect of Alberta's health reform on length of stay for maternity cases and on subsequent mothers' rehospitalization was examined in the present study.
The data set included all Alberta acute care hospital separation records from 1991/92 to 1996/97 inclusive. A logistic regression was applied to the data in order to examine the effects of prepartum condition, type of delivery, length of stay, maternal age, and year on the likelihood of readmission.
Health reform proved to be associated with a dramatic decrease in length of stay for maternity cases; from 3.8 to 2.4 days on average. This was accompanied by very little variation in the 90-day readmission rate for mothers over the same time period (notably, a slight decrease). Higher readmission rates were associated with the existence of difficulties during the pregnancy and other prenatal conditions, maternal age, and with the type of delivery. There were no dramatic changes in the rates for prepartum diagnoses, nor for the type of delivery.
The data suggest that the reduction in the length of maternity stay has had no discernible negative health effects on new mothers, perhaps because of the home visiting programs that were put in place. Furthermore, there may still be room to improve outcomes by focussing on those with prepartum conditions and cases involving complicated births.
PubMed ID
12675165 View in PubMed
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Stress and development of depression and heavy drinking in adulthood: moderating effects of childhood trauma.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature123597
Source
Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol. 2013 Feb;48(2):265-74
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-2013
Author
Ian Colman
Yasmin Garad
Yiye Zeng
Kiyuri Naicker
Murray Weeks
Scott B Patten
Peter B Jones
Angus H Thompson
T Cameron Wild
Author Affiliation
School of Public Health, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada. icolman@uottawa.ca
Source
Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol. 2013 Feb;48(2):265-74
Date
Feb-2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Alcoholism - diagnosis - epidemiology - psychology
Canada - epidemiology
Child
Child Abuse - psychology
Depression - diagnosis - epidemiology - psychology
Female
Health Surveys
Humans
Interview, Psychological
Life Change Events
Logistic Models
Male
Prevalence
Prospective Studies
Questionnaires
Risk factors
Social Support
Socioeconomic Factors
Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic - epidemiology - psychology
Stress, Psychological - epidemiology - psychology
Abstract
Studies suggest that childhood trauma is linked to both depression and heavy drinking in adulthood, and may create a lifelong vulnerability to stress. Few studies have explored the effects of stress sensitization on the development of depression or heavy drinking among those who have experienced traumatic childhood events. This study aimed to determine the effect of childhood trauma on the odds of experiencing depression or heavy drinking in the face of an adult life stressor, using a large population-based Canadian cohort.
A total of 3,930 participants were included from the National Population Health Survey. The associations among childhood trauma, recent stress and depression/heavy drinking from 1994/1995 to 2008/2009 were explored using logistic regression, as were interactions between childhood trauma and recent stress. A generalized linear mixed model was used to determine the effects of childhood trauma and stressful events on depression/heavy drinking. Analyses were stratified by sex.
Childhood trauma significantly increased the odds of becoming depressed (following 1 event: OR = 1.66; 95%CI 1.01, 2.71; 2+ events, OR = 3.89; 95%CI 2.44, 6.22) and drinking heavily (2+ events: OR = 1.79; 95%CI 1.03, 3.13). Recent stressful events were associated with depression, but not heavy drinking. While most interaction terms were not significant, in 2004/2005 the association between recent stress and depression was stronger in those who reported childhood trauma compared to those with no childhood trauma.
Childhood trauma increases risk for both depression and heavy drinking. Trauma may moderate the effect of stress on depression; the relationship among trauma, stress and heavy drinking is less clear.
PubMed ID
22684339 View in PubMed
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The suicidal process: age of onset and severity of suicidal behaviour.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature131126
Source
Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol. 2012 Aug;47(8):1263-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-2012
Author
Angus H Thompson
Carolyn S Dewa
Stephanie Phare
Author Affiliation
Institute of Health Economics, 1200, 10405 Jasper Avenue, Edmonton, AB, T5J 3N4, Canada, gthompson@ihe.ca.
Source
Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol. 2012 Aug;47(8):1263-9
Date
Aug-2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Age of Onset
Aged
Alberta - epidemiology
Female
Health Surveys
Humans
Intention
Interviews as Topic
Male
Mental Disorders - complications - epidemiology - psychology
Middle Aged
Prevalence
Questionnaires
Risk factors
Severity of Illness Index
Sex Characteristics
Socioeconomic Factors
Suicide - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Telephone
Young Adult
Abstract
The concept of the suicidal process implies a progression from behaviour of relatively low intent to completed suicide. Evidence from the literature has given rise to the speculation that the age of onset of an early form of the suicidal process may be associated with the ultimate seriousness of suicidal behaviour. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that early onset of the first stage of the suicidal process, a wish to die, is associated with increases in the ultimate position along the suicidal process dimension.
Questions on the appearance and timing of suicidal process components (a death wish, ideation, plan, or attempt) were embedded in a telephone survey on mental health and addictions in the workforce. Records of those that had experienced suicidal behaviour were examined for the effects on the age of onset of the first death wish as a function of the level of severity of suicidal behaviour, gender, and depression.
The findings showed that increases in suicidal intent were associated with lowered age of the first death wish. This pattern held true for depressed and non-depressed persons alike.
The results support the notion that the early onset of a supposed precursor of suicidal behaviour, a death wish in this case, adds to its ability to portend more serious problem levels in later stages of life. Furthermore, mood operates independently in its association with the timing of such suicidal behaviour, suggesting that the effect of a relatively youthful appearance of a wish to die cannot be explained by early onset depression.
PubMed ID
21935695 View in PubMed
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12 records – page 1 of 2.