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Dietary intake and risk factors for poor diet quality among children in Nova Scotia.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature174637
Source
Can J Public Health. 2005 May-Jun;96(3):212-6
Publication Type
Article
Author
Paul J Veugelers
Angela L Fitzgerald
Elizabeth Johnston
Author Affiliation
Department of Community Health & Epidemiology, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS.
Source
Can J Public Health. 2005 May-Jun;96(3):212-6
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Child
Child Nutritional Physiological Phenomena
Diet - statistics & numerical data
Energy intake
Feeding Behavior
Female
Humans
Male
Nova Scotia
Nutrition Policy
Nutrition Surveys
Questionnaires
Risk factors
Schools
Students
Abstract
Public health policies promote healthy nutrition but evaluations of children's adherence to dietary recommendations and studies of risk factors of poor nutrition are scarce, despite the importance of diet for the temporal increase in the prevalence of childhood obesity. Here we examine dietary intake and risk factors for poor diet quality among children in Nova Scotia to provide direction for health policies and prevention initiatives.
In 2003, we surveyed 5,200 grade five students from 282 public schools in Nova Scotia, as well as their parents. We assessed students' dietary intake (Harvard's Youth Adolescent Food Frequency Questionnaire) and compared this with Canadian food group and nutrient recommendations. We summarized diet quality using the Diet Quality Index International, and used multilevel regression methods to evaluate potential child, parental and school risk factors for poor diet quality.
In Nova Scotia, 42.3% of children did not meet recommendations for milk products nor did they meet recommendations for the food groups 'Vegetables and fruit' (49.9%), 'Grain products' (54.4%) and 'Meat and alternatives' (73.7%). Children adequately met nutrient requirements with the exception of calcium and fibre, of which intakes were low, and dietary fat and sodium, of which intakes were high. Skipping meals and purchasing meals at school or fast-food restaurants were statistically significant determinants of poor diet. Parents' assessment of their own eating habits was positively associated with the quality of their children's diets.
Dietary intake among children in Nova Scotia is relatively poor. Explicit public health policies and prevention initiatives targeting children, their parents and schools may improve diet quality and prevent obesity.
PubMed ID
15913088 View in PubMed
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Dietary reference intakes: a comparison with the Nova Scotia Nutrition Survey.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature187315
Source
Can J Diet Pract Res. 2002;63(4):176-83
Publication Type
Article
Date
2002
Author
Angela L Fitzgerald
David R Maclean
Paul J Veugelers
Author Affiliation
Dalhousie University.
Source
Can J Diet Pract Res. 2002;63(4):176-83
Date
2002
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Dietary Fats - administration & dosage
Female
Food Habits
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Nova Scotia
Nutrition Assessment
Nutrition Policy
Nutrition Surveys
Nutritional Requirements
Population Surveillance
Sex Factors
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to compare the newly released dietary reference intakes with the 1990 Nova Scotia Nutrition Survey and identify characteristics that influence compatibility with these new recommendations. For each of 17 nutrient recommendations, we calculated the proportion of participants who consumed intakes within the recommended range. We constructed a score reflecting overall compatibility between the new recommendations and the Nova Scotia Nutrition Survey data. Using this score as the dependent variable, we conducted multivariate regression analysis to evaluate the importance of demographic and behavioural factors for compatibility with the dietary reference intakes. Results indicate that compatibility with the dietary reference intakes was poor among Nova Scotians, particularly for magnesium, vitamins C and E, and macronutrients. Compatibility was lower among females than among males, and differed independently by age, body mass index, socioeconomic factors, smoking status, and alcohol consumption. Dietary intervention is needed in Nova Scotia. Reduced fat intake and increased intake of specific vitamins should be promoted. We recommend that nutrition education campaigns coinciding with the introduction of the dietary reference intakes in Nova Scotia target younger people, those of lower socioeconomic background, smokers, and those who are obese.
PubMed ID
12493140 View in PubMed
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Diet quality and cancer incidence in Nova Scotia, Canada.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature186633
Source
Nutr Cancer. 2002;43(2):127-32
Publication Type
Article
Date
2002
Author
Angela L Fitzgerald
Ron A Dewar
Paul J Veugelers
Author Affiliation
Department of Community Health and Epidemiology, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS, Canada B3H 4H7.
Source
Nutr Cancer. 2002;43(2):127-32
Date
2002
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Diet - standards
Female
Health promotion
Humans
Incidence
Logistic Models
Male
Mental Recall
Middle Aged
Neoplasms - epidemiology - etiology - prevention & control
Nova Scotia - epidemiology
Nutrition Surveys
Risk factors
Abstract
Cancer rates in the province of Nova Scotia, Canada, are among the highest in the country and coincide with elevated rates of risk factors such as smoking, poor diet, and obesity. To investigate the importance of diet on cancer, using data from the 1990 Nova Scotia Nutrition Survey, we developed a diet quality score reflecting compliance with 17 nutrient recommendations. The survey data were subsequently linked with the provincial cancer registry, and the relationship between diet quality and cancer was quantified using logistic regression. Our results support an inverse relationship between diet quality and cancer, although limited statistical power resulting from our small study sample did not reveal any statistically significant relationships. We estimated that cancer incidence could potentially be reduced by approximately 35% through improved diet quality. On the basis of poor diet, nutrition-related factors (high body mass index), our estimates of the preventable fraction of cancer, and the high provincial cancer rates, we recommend health promotion strategies aimed at improving diet quality in Nova Scotia.
PubMed ID
12588692 View in PubMed
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Effectiveness of school programs in preventing childhood obesity: a multilevel comparison.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature176062
Source
Am J Public Health. 2005 Mar;95(3):432-5
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-2005
Author
Paul J Veugelers
Angela L Fitzgerald
Author Affiliation
Department of Public Health Sciences, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Alberta, Room 13-106D, Clinical Sciences Bldg, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2G3, Canada. paul.veugelers@ualberta.ca
Source
Am J Public Health. 2005 Mar;95(3):432-5
Date
Mar-2005
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Body Height
Body Weight
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (U.S.)
Child
Child Nutrition Sciences - education
Diet Surveys
Exercise
Guidelines as Topic
Health Education - organization & administration
Humans
Life Style
Linear Models
Logistic Models
Nova Scotia - epidemiology
Nutrition Policy
Obesity - diagnosis - epidemiology - prevention & control
Parents - education - psychology
Program Evaluation
Questionnaires
Risk factors
School Health Services - organization & administration
Socioeconomic Factors
United States
Abstract
In light of the alarming increase in childhood obesity and lack of evidence for the effectiveness of school programs, we studied the effects of school programs in regard to preventing excess body weight.
In 2003, we surveyed 5200 grade 5 students along with their parents and school principals. We measured height and weight, assessed dietary intake, and collected information on physical and sedentary activities. We compared excess body weight, diet, and physical activity across schools with and without nutrition programs using multilevel regression methods while adjusting for gender and socioeconomic characteristics of parents and residential neighborhoods.
Students from schools participating in a coordinated program that incorporated recommendations for school-based healthy eating programs exhibited significantly lower rates of overweight and obesity, had healthier diets, and reported more physical activities than students from schools without nutrition programs.
Our finding that school programs are effective in preventing childhood obesity supports the need for broader implementation of successful programs, which will reduce childhood obesity and, in the longer term, comorbid conditions and health care spending.
Notes
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PubMed ID
15727972 View in PubMed
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Prevalence of and risk factors for childhood overweight and obesity.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature172925
Source
CMAJ. 2005 Sep 13;173(6):607-13
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-13-2005
Author
Paul J Veugelers
Angela L Fitzgerald
Author Affiliation
Department of Public Health Sciences, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alta. paul.veugelers@ualberta.ca
Source
CMAJ. 2005 Sep 13;173(6):607-13
Date
Sep-13-2005
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Body Weight
Child
Child Welfare
Diet
Exercise
Family Relations
Female
Health promotion
Health Surveys
Humans
Income
Male
Nova Scotia - epidemiology
Obesity - epidemiology - etiology
Physical Education and Training
Prevalence
Risk factors
Abstract
Increases in childhood overweight and obesity have become an important public health problem in industrialized nations. Preventive public health action is required, but more research of risk factors is required before evidence-based initiatives can be developed and targeted effectively. We investigated the association between childhood overweight and obesity and risk factors relating to dietary habits, activities, parents and schools.
In 2003 we surveyed grade 5 students and their parents and school principals in Nova Scotia. We measured height and weight and assessed dietary habits (using Harvard's Youth/Adolescent Food Frequency Questionnaire), physical and sedentary activities, and parental and school-based risk factors. We estimated neighbourhood income by averaging, per school, the postal-code level means of household income of residential addresses of children attending that school. We used multilevel logistic regression to evaluate the significance of these risk factors for overweight and obesity.
On the basis of measurements taken of 4298 grade 5 students, we estimated the provincial prevalence of overweight to be 32.9% and of obesity to be 9.9%. Children who bought lunch at school were at increased risk of overweight (fully adjusted odds ratio [OR] 1.39, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.16-1.67), whereas those who ate supper together with their family 3 or more times a week were at decreased risk (OR 0.68, 95% CI 0.52-0.88). Physical education classes 2 or more times a week at school were associated with a decreased risk of overweight (OR 0.61, 95% CI 0.43-0.87) and obesity (OR 0.54, 95% CI 0.33-0.88). Children in high-income neighbourhoods were half as likely to be obese as their peers living in low-income neighbourhoods (OR 0.50, 95% CI 0.36-0.70).
Parents and schools provide important opportunities for public health initiatives for reducing childhood overweight and obesity. Children and schools in low-income neighbourhoods should receive priority in public health initiatives to reduce future socioeconomic inequalities in health.
Notes
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PubMed ID
16157724 View in PubMed
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