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Common mental health problems in immigrants and refugees: general approach in primary care.
CMAJ. 2011 Sep 6;183(12):E959-67
Publication Type
Laurence J Kirmayer
Lavanya Narasiah
Marie Munoz
Meb Rashid
Andrew G Ryder
Jaswant Guzder
Ghayda Hassan
Cécile Rousseau
Kevin Pottie
Author Affiliation
Division of Social and Transcultural Psychiatry, McGill University, Montréal, Que.
CMAJ. 2011 Sep 6;183(12):E959-67
Publication Type
Canada - epidemiology
Cultural Characteristics
Emigrants and Immigrants
Health Status Indicators
Mental Disorders - diagnosis - epidemiology - therapy
Primary Health Care
Risk factors
Recognizing and appropriately treating mental health problems among new immigrants and refugees in primary care poses a challenge because of differences in language and culture and because of specific stressors associated with migration and resettlement. We aimed to identify risk factors and strategies in the approach to mental health assessment and to prevention and treatment of common mental health problems for immigrants in primary care.
We searched and compiled literature on prevalence and risk factors for common mental health problems related to migration, the effect of cultural influences on health and illness, and clinical strategies to improve mental health care for immigrants and refugees. Publications were selected on the basis of relevance, use of recent data and quality in consultation with experts in immigrant and refugee mental health.
The migration trajectory can be divided into three components: premigration, migration and postmigration resettlement. Each phase is associated with specific risks and exposures. The prevalence of specific types of mental health problems is influenced by the nature of the migration experience, in terms of adversity experienced before, during and after resettlement. Specific challenges in migrant mental health include communication difficulties because of language and cultural differences; the effect of cultural shaping of symptoms and illness behaviour on diagnosis, coping and treatment; differences in family structure and process affecting adaptation, acculturation and intergenerational conflict; and aspects of acceptance by the receiving society that affect employment, social status and integration. These issues can be addressed through specific inquiry, the use of trained interpreters and culture brokers, meetings with families, and consultation with community organizations.
Systematic inquiry into patients' migration trajectory and subsequent follow-up on culturally appropriate indicators of social, vocational and family functioning over time will allow clinicians to recognize problems in adaptation and undertake mental health promotion, disease prevention or treatment interventions in a timely way.
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PubMed ID
20603342 View in PubMed
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High rates of psychosis for black inpatients in Padua and Montreal: different contexts, similar findings.
Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol. 2011 Mar;46(3):247-53
Publication Type
G Eric Jarvis
Irene Toniolo
Andrew G Ryder
Francesco Sessa
Carla Cremonese
Author Affiliation
McGill University, Montreal, QC, Canada.
Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol. 2011 Mar;46(3):247-53
Publication Type
African Continental Ancestry Group - statistics & numerical data
Canada - epidemiology - ethnology
Cross-Cultural Comparison
European Continental Ancestry Group - statistics & numerical data
Hospitalization - statistics & numerical data
International Classification of Diseases - statistics & numerical data
Italy - epidemiology - ethnology
Logistic Models
Population Groups - statistics & numerical data
Psychiatric Department, Hospital - statistics & numerical data
Psychotic Disorders - diagnosis - epidemiology - ethnology
Transients and Migrants - statistics & numerical data
This study tested the hypothesis that despite differences in setting, specifically in Padua or Montreal, black psychiatric inpatients will have higher rates of assigned diagnosis of psychosis than their non-black counterparts.
Data on psychotic patients admitted to the psychiatry ward were extracted from records of general hospitals in Padua and Montreal. Logistic regression analyses were conducted separately for each site to determine the relation between being black and receiving a diagnosis of psychosis, while controlling for sex and age.
Most black patients at both sites received a diagnosis of psychosis (76% in Padua and 81% in Montreal). Being black was independently and positively associated with being diagnosed with psychosis compared to patients from other groups.
Black patients admitted to psychiatry, whether in Padua or Montreal, were more likely to be assigned a diagnosis of psychosis than were other patients.
PubMed ID
20165832 View in PubMed
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