To determine the degree of noncompliance with antidepressant treatment in the Alberta population and to investigate the reasons for noncompliance.
We used data from the Alberta Mental Health Survey, a telephone survey conducted in 2003 (n = 5323 adults), to produce population-based estimates of the frequency of noncompliance and the reported reasons for noncompliance.
Reported noncompliance was 41.7% (95% confidence interval [CI], 36.9% to 46.6%) for respondents taking 1, 2, or 3 antidepressants. Noncompliance for those taking 1 antidepressant was 42.0% (95%CI, 36.9% to 47.2%), whereas noncompliance for those taking 2 or 3 antidepressants was 39.4% (95%CI, 26.7% to 53.6%). Among respondents currently taking at least one antidepressant, 64.9% (95%CI, 57.4% to 71.7%) reported that forgetfulness was the most common reason for noncompliance. Of respondents taking 1 medication, 64.1% (95%CI, 56.0% to 71.4%) reported forgetfulness as did 71.3% (95%CI, 48.3% to 86.8%) of those taking 2 or 3 medications. Both the frequency of noncompliance and the reported reasons for noncompliance were independent of sex and age.
Our study replicates prior reports that indicate that noncompliance is common with antidepressant treatment. Forgetting to take medication is the most important reported reason for this noncompliance.
We assessed whether major depression (MD) predicts progression of nicotine dependence (ND) as measured by reduction in the time to first cigarette (TTFC) after waking and the roles of the number of cigarettes smoked per day (CPD) and stress as explanatory variables of this association.
Ten years of follow-up data from the National Population Health Survey (NPHS) were used. The analyses were based on this nationally representative sample of the Canadian population who were over the age of 12 years in 1996 (n = 13,298). The NPHS included measures of MD and TTFC. Shorter TTFC was defined as TTFC within 5 min of waking. Heavy smoking (HS) was defined by smoking 20 or more CPD. Using proportional hazard models, unadjusted and adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for shorter TTFC were estimated for those with and without MD.
The unadjusted HR for shorter TTFC among those with MD versus those without MD was 3.7 (95% CI: 2.6-5.3, p
Remission from the symptoms of depression is the optimal outcome for depression treatment. Many studies have assessed the frequency of treatment, but there are none that have estimated the frequency of treated remission in the general population. We addressed this issue in the population of Alberta using a brief Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD)-7 scale (recently validated against the HAMD-17 scale in a clinical setting) that has been proposed as a suitable indicator for remission in primary care. We used data from a survey conducted within the Alberta Depression Initiative in 2005 (n=3,345 adults), to produce a population-based estimate of the number of respondents taking antidepressant medication for depression. From this group we selected a subpopulation that did not screen positive when the MINI module for major depression was administered (i.e., who did not have an active episode). Non-remission in this subpopulation was assessed with a version of the HAMD-7 scale adapted for telephone administration by a nonclinician. Of the survey respondents, 189 reported taking antidepressant medication for depression. Of these, 115 were found not to have an active episode. However, 49.0% of this subpopulation was not in remission as evaluated by the HAMD-7. We estimate that 1.3% (95% confidence interval, 0.9-2.0%) of the population is in treated non-remission for depression. Our study indicates a substantial degree of non-remission from depression in individuals taking antidepressants in the general population. This suggests that, in addition to increasing the frequency of treatment, increasing the effectiveness of treatment can have an impact on population health.
Reports of bidirectional associations between smoking and major depression (MD) have been interpreted as providing evidence for confounding by shared-vulnerability factors (SV) that predispose individuals to both conditions. If this is true, then smoking cessation may not reduce the risk of MD. From clinical practice and public health perspectives, the long-term outcomes associated with smoking persistence and cessation are potentially important and deserve exploration. To this end, the 12-year risk of MD in persistent heavy smokers and abstainers who were former-heavy smokers with and without adjustment for potential confounders were compared.
Follow-up data from the National Population Health Survey (NPHS) was used. Multinomial logistic (ML) models were fit to identify potential confounders. Using proportional hazard (PH) models, unadjusted and adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for MD outcome were estimated for different smoking patterns.
The unadjusted HR relating the risk of MD among current-heavy versus former-heavy smokers was 4.3 (95% CI: 2.6-6.9, p
Marital status is important to the epidemiology of psychiatric disorders. In particular, the high prevalence of major depression in individuals with separated, divorced, or widowed status has been well documented. However, the literature is divided as to whether marital disruption results in major depression and/or vise versa. We examined whether major depression influences changes of marital status, and, conversely, whether marital status influences the incidence of this disorder.
We employed data from the longitudinal Canadian National Population Health Survey (1994-2004), and proportional hazards models with time-varying covariates.
Major depression had no effect on the proportion of individuals who changed from single to common-law, single to married, or common-law to married status. In contrast, exposure to depression doubled the proportion of transitions from common-law or married to separated or divorced status (HR=2.0; 95% CI 1.4-2.9 P