This study aimed to assess whether adolescents have an increased risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes (APO) compared to adult women. We used data on 43,327 births from the population-based Arkhangelsk County Birth Registry, Northwest Russia, for 2012-2014. The perinatal outcomes included stillbirth, preterm birth (
Objectives. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of anemia in pregnancy in Monchegorsk, north-west Russia, and to analyse its association with birth weight and the risk of stillbirth and preterm birth. Study design. A registry study based on the Kola Birth Registry. Methods. A total of 24,525 women who gave birth in Monchegorsk between 1973 and 2002 and who had data on anemia in pregnancy in the Kola Birth Registry (KBR) were included in the study. For these women, data on maternal anemia, age, occupation, marital status, parity, smoking, alcohol, gestational age, birth weight, stillbirth and year of delivery were obtained from the KBR. Linear regression was used to study the effect of maternal anemia on birth weight. Logistic regression was used to estimate the effect of anemia on the risks of stillbirth and preterm birth, with adjustment for the above-mentioned characteristics. Crude and adjusted odds ratios (OR) were calculated. Results. The prevalence of anemia increased from 43.7% in the 1970s to 89.8% in the beginning of the 2000s. Infants born to women with anemia were 48 grams (95% CI 36, 59) heavier than infants of non-anemic women. Women with anemia in pregnancy were less likely to have stillbirths (OR=0.68; 95% CI 0.52, 0.89) and preterm births (OR=0.66; 95% CI 0.58, 0.75) after adjustment for potential confounders. Conclusion. The prevalence of anemia in pregnant women as defined by the KBR more than doubled during the 30-year period. Positive associations with birth weight and negative associations with the risk of stillbirth and live preterm birth were observed.
The association between maternal anemia and pregnancy outcomes has been investigated in many epidemiological studies, but the findings remain inconsistent. In our previous study based on the Kola Birth Registry (KBR), we observed that maternal anemia defined as hemoglobin concentration below 120 g/l was negatively associated with the risk of stillbirth and preterm birth and positively associated with foetal growth (1). However, our anemic group was heterogeneous and included women with hemoglobin between 110 and 120 g/l, which cannot be classified as anemic according to the WHO. This study aims to achieve a more detailed analysis of different maternal hemoglobin concentrations and their associations with stillbirth, preterm birth and foetal growth in using the data from the KBR.
Population-based twin data were used to test (a) whether lower birthweight confers a greater risk of adult health disorders, and (b) whether within-pair birthweight differences in twins explain discordance for health outcomes. The sample consisted of 1201 monozygotic (MZ) male twins, 1048 dizygotic (DZ) male twins, 1679 MZ female twins, 1489 DZ female twins, and 2423 opposite-sex DZ twins, born in Norway between 1967 and 1979. The relationship between birthweight and self-reported health outcomes were studied using multivariable logistic regression. In the full sample (n = 7840), birthweight was negatively associated with risk for nearsightedness (odds ratio OR = 0.76, 95% CI: 0.65 - 0.92) and minimal brain disorder (OR = 0.27, 95% CI: 0.16-0.44) when adjusted for gestational age, sex, zygosity, age, education and body mass index after correction for intraclass correlations and multiple comparisons. Within-pair analysis of 159 MZ and 224 DZ pairs revealed that myopic twins were on average 2 g (p = .966) and 64 g (p = .040) lighter than nonmyopic twins in MZ and DZ pairs respectively, suggesting that genetic factors may play an important role in the associations between birthweight and nearsightedness. Within-pair analysis of twins discordant for a minimal brain disorder indicated that affected twins were 80 g (p = .655) and 85 g (p = .655) lighter than their healthy co-twins in MZ and DZ pairs respectively, although there were only 2 MZ and 2 DZ discordant pairs.
Prenatal diagnostics ultrasound was established in Russia in 2000 as a routine method of screening for birth defects. The aims of the current study were twofold: to assess changes in birth defects prevalence at birth and perinatal mortality after ultrasound screening was implemented and to estimate prenatal detection rates for congenital malformations in the city of Monchegorsk (Murmansk County, North-West Russia).
The Murmansk County Birth Registry and the Kola Birth Registry were the primary sources of information, and include 30 448 pregnancy outcomes in Monchegorsk for the period 1973-2011. Data from these registries were supplemented with information derived from hospital records about pregnancy terminations for 2000-2007.
The total number of newborns with any kind of birth defects in Monchegorsk during 1973-2011 was 1099, of whom 816 were born in the 1973-2000 period. The prevalence of defects at birth increased from 34.2/1000 (95 % CI?=?31.9-36.5) to 42.8/1000 newborns (95 % CI?=?38.0-47.7) after prenatal ultrasound screening was formally implemented. We observed significant decreases (p?
In Russia, active case finding (ACF) for certain population groups has been practiced uninterruptedly for many decades, but no studies comparing ACF and passive case finding (PCF) approaches in Russia have been published.
The aim of this study was to describe the main differences in symptoms and diagnostic delay between patients who come to TB services through PCF and ACF strategies.
A cross-sectional study was conducted among 453 new pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) patients, who met criteria of TB diagnostic delay in Arkhangelsk.
ACF patients used self-treatment more often than PCF patients (90.1% vs. 24.6%) and 36.3% of them were alcohol abusers (as opposed to only 26.2% of PCF patients). The median patient delay (PD) in PCF was 4 weeks, IQR (1-8 weeks), and less than 1 week in ACF. Twenty-three per cent of the PCF patients were seen by a medical provider within the first week of their illness onset.
Patients diagnosed through ACF tended to under-report their TB symptoms and showed low attention to their own health. However, ACF allowed for discovering TB patients earlier than PCF, and this was also the case for alcohol abusing patients. PCF systems should be supplemented with ACF strategies.
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Congenital anomalies of the kidney and the urinary tract (CAKUTs) are relatively common birth defects. The combined prevalence in Europe was 3.3 per 1000 in 2012. The risk factors for these anomalies are not clearly identified. The aims of our study were to calculate the birth prevalences of urinary malformations in Murmansk County during 2006 to 2011 and to investigate related prenatal risk factors.
The Murmansk County Birth Registry was the primary source of information and our study included 50,936 singletons in the examination of structure, prevalence and proportional distribution of CAKUTs. The multivariate analyses of risk factors involved 39,322 newborns.
The prevalence of CAKUTs was 4.0 per 1000 newborns (95% confidence interval [CI], 3.4-4.5) and did not change during the study period. The most prevalent malformation was congenital hydronephrosis (14.2% of all cases). Diabetes mellitus or gestational diabetes (odds ratio [OR]?=?4.77; 95% CI, 1.16-19.65), acute infections while pregnant (OR?=?1.83; 95% CI, 1.14-2.94), the use of medication during pregnancy (OR?=?2.03; 95% CI, 1.44-2.82), and conception during the summer (OR?=?1.75; 95% CI 1.15-2.66) were significantly associated with higher risk of CAKUTs.
The overall fourfold enhancement of the occurrence of urinary malformations in Murmansk County for the 2006 to 2011 period showed little annual dependence. During pregnancy, use of medications, infections, pre-existing diabetes mellitus, or gestational diabetes were associated with increased risk of these anomalies, as was conception during summer. Our findings have direct applications in improving prenatal care in Murmansk County and establishing targets for prenatal screening and women's consultations.
BACKGROUND: Large-scale policy and environmental changes, such as congestion road taxes, may be a way to promote active transportation. PURPOSE: This study aimed to examine the potential effect of a congestion road tax on physical activity. METHODS: Baseline data were collected during October-November 2003, follow-up data in May 2006, and analysis was performed in September 2008. The short self-administered version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire was used to assess physical activity. Data from those with access to motorized vehicles in the Stockholm region (n=165), where the tax was in place, were compared with those from the Göteborg/Malmö regions (n=138). Within each region before and during the road tax implementation, the data were analyzed for differences in time spent at different intensity levels of physical activity, in addition to sitting, as well as for changes in reported time in overall (weighted) physical activity. RESULTS: There were no significant differences in the magnitude of the changes of the intensity levels of physical activity, weighted overall physical activity, or sitting, between Stockholm and Göteborg/Malmö. Among those exposed to the congestion road tax and with access to motorized vehicles, an increase in moderate physical activity (p=0.036); overall physical activity (p=0.015); and a reduction in time spent sitting (p=0.009) was observed. No differences were observed among those unexposed. CONCLUSIONS: The results from this study on the influence of a congestion road tax on levels of physical activity, though inconclusive, suggest that policy changes such as a congestion road tax might promote improvements in physical activity levels in individuals with motorized vehicles.
To assess daily variations in ambulance calls for cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), mental and behavioral disorders, and external causes in Arkhangelsk, Northwest Russia, in 2000-2008.
A population-based study.
Data about all ambulance calls during the years 2000-2008 were obtained from the Arkhangelsk ambulance station. Information about patient's gender, age, doctor's diagnosis according to International Classification of Diseases, 10th revision, and the date of call were recorded. Pearson's Chi-squared tests were used for comparing proportions of ambulance calls across the week for CVDs (I00-99), mental and behavioral disorders (F00-F99), and external causes (S00-T98, V01-Y98). The ratio of incidence of ambulance calls on Saturday, Sunday, and Monday versus the rest of week was also calculated.
Objectives. To estimate the prevalence and experience of dental caries among 15-year-old adolescents in north-west Russia between 2007 and 2008. Study design. A cross-sectional study. Methods. In total, 352 adolescents at the age of 15 were selected at random from 3 urban and 4 rural areas in the Arkhangelsk region. Girls comprised 53.4% of the sample. Caries experience was assessed at D3 level by a single calibrated examiner and was estimated as a sum of decayed, missing and filled teeth (DMFT). Results. The prevalence of caries was 91.8% with a mean DMFT of 4.92. On average, there were 2.61 decayed, 0.13 missing and 2.18 filled teeth per participant. No gender differences in the prevalence of caries in any of the settings or in the full sample were observed. In urban areas, the average number of decayed teeth was lower (2.15 vs. 2.95, p=0.006), while the number of filled teeth was greater (2.71 vs. 1.79, p