The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the association between the duration of objectively measured forward bending of the trunk and low back pain (LBP) intensity among 198 Danish blue-collar workers (male = 115; female = 83). The duration of forward bending of = 30°, = 60° and = 90° was divided into high (the highest tertile) and low-moderate (the remaining tertiles) categories. High (>5) and low ( = 5) pain intensities were categorised from a self-reported 0-9 scale. Results of multi-adjusted logistic regressions indicated no significant positive associations between forward bending and LBP intensity. On the contrary, higher duration of forward bending of = 30° was associated with lower LBP intensity during all day (OR = 0.40; 95% CI, 0.15-1.02; p = 0.05) and work (OR = 0.44; 95% CI, 0.17-1.15; p = 0.09). This indication of a negative association may be explained by fear-avoidance behaviour of the blue-collar worker, job crafting or healthy worker effect.
The aim of the study is to investigate the association between health and sickness absence among Danish and non-Western immigrant cleaners in Denmark.
This study is based on a cross-sectional analysis of baseline data from 2007 to 2008. The study population includes 276 cleaners, 144 Danish and 132 non-Western immigrant cleaners. Cumulative sickness absences during a 6-month period from administrative records were subdivided into no sickness absence (0 days), low occurrence of sickness absence (1-10 days) and high occurrence of sickness absence (over 10 days). Measures of health consisted of self-report and objective assessments. The relationship between sickness absence and health was analyzed through multinomial logistic regression, stratified by immigrant status.
For both Danish and non-Western immigrant cleaners, poor self-reported health was significantly related to high occurrence of sickness absence. Among Danish cleaners, high blood pressure was related to high occurrence of sickness absence. Among non-Western immigrant cleaners, total body pain and having one or more diagnosed chronic disease were related to high occurrence of sickness absence. No association between health and low occurrence of sickness absence was found.
The findings confirm the importance of health for high occurrence of sickness absence, in both ethnic groups. Moreover, low occurrence of sickness absence was not related to the health conditions investigated.
Non-Western cleaners have reported better psychosocial work environment but worse health compared with their Danish colleagues. The aim of this study was to compare the association between psychosocial work environment and hypertension among non-Western immigrant cleaners and Danish cleaners.
Two hundred and eighty-five cleaners from nine workplaces in Denmark participated in this cross-sectional study. The cleaners were identified as non-Western immigrants (n = 137) or Danes (n = 148). Blood pressure was measured in a seated position, and psychosocial work environment was assessed by the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (COPSOQ). In each population, multivariate logistic regressions were applied testing for an association between each of the COPSOQ scales and hypertension.
Models adjusted for age, sex, BMI, smoking, workplace and physical work exertion showed that high Trust regarding management (OR = 0.50) and high Predictability (OR = 0.63) were statistically significantly associated with low prevalence of hypertension in the Danish population. In the immigrant population, no significant associations were found. Analyses on interaction effects showed that associations between Meaning of work and hypertension were significantly different among the two populations (p
Data on time spent in physical activity, sedentary behavior and sleep during a day is compositional in nature, i.e. they add up to a constant value. Compositional data have fundamentally different properties from unconstrained data in real space, and require other analytical procedures, referred to as compositional data analysis (CoDA). Most physical activity and sedentary behavior studies, however, still apply analytical procedures adapted to data in real space, which can lead to misleading results. The present study describes a comparison of time spent sedentary and in physical activity between age groups and sexes, and investigates the extent to which results obtained by CoDA differ from those obtained using standard analytical procedures.
Time spent sedentary, standing, and in physical activity (walking/running/stair climbing/cycling) during work and leisure was determined for 1-4 days among 677 blue-collar workers using accelerometry. Differences between sexes and age groups were tested using MANOVA, using both a standard and a CoDA approach based on isometric log-ratio transformed data.
When determining differences between sexes for different activities time at work, the effect size using standard analysis (?2?=?0.045, p?
Department of Public and Occupational Health, Amsterdam Public Health Research Institute, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands; School of Physiotherapy and Exercise Science, Curtin University, Perth, Australia. Electronic address: email@example.com.
Recent studies suggest that while leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) promotes general health, engaging in occupational physical activity (OPA) may have negative health consequences. It has been hypothesized that the different health effects from OPA and LTPA can be explained by differences in physical activity (PA) intensity in these two domains. To assess the intensity of OPA and LTPA, we aimed to study the percentage heart rate reserve (%HRR) during similar types of OPA and LTPA during workdays. Data from the NOMAD study on Danish blue-collar workers (n=124) with objective measurements of PA (using accelerometers) and heart rate (using heart rate monitors) for 4 workdays were analysed. Activities of sitting, standing, moving, walking, and stair climbing were identified and %HRR in each of these activities was determined for work and leisure. %HRR was significantly higher during OPA than LTPA. These differences were more pronounced in men than in women. Although not statistically significant in the fully adjusted model, we found indications that these differences were more pronounced in those with low compared to high fitness. To our knowledge, this is the first study with objective measurements showing that %HRR is higher during the same gross-body postural activities when performed at work compared to leisure-time during workdays. This elevated intensity may help explaining the negative health consequences of engagement in high levels of OPA. Future guidelines should distinguish OPA from LTPA, possibly by advising workers to remain active during their leisure time, in particular when they are highly active at work.
To investigate whether rare use of assistive devices during patient handling increases the respective risk for infrequent and frequent low back pain (LBP) among female healthcare workers reporting to be free of LBP at baseline.
Female healthcare workers replied to questionnaires about use of assistive devices during patient handling activities (rarely, occasionally and often) and LBP in both 2005 and 2006. Among those reporting to be free of LBP (0 days the past 12 months) in 2005 (n = 1,478), the multi-adjusted odds ratio for developing infrequent LBP (1-30 days the past 12 months) and frequent LBP (>30 days the past 12 months) in 2006 depending on use of assistive devices was prospectively investigated.
The multi-adjusted odds ratio for developing infrequent LBP was 1.21 (95 % CI 0.90-1.62) for those occasionally using assistive devices, and 1.78 (95 % CI 1.19-2.66) for those rarely using assistive devices, referencing healthcare workers often using assistive devices during patient handling (p
The aim of the current study was to investigate whether Workplace Health Promotion (WHP) is available for workers with poor health status (overweight, musculoskeletal disorders, sickness absence and poor self-rated health) or health behaviour (smoking, poor diet and sedentarism) and whether they participate in WHP. In total, 9835 workers responded to questions regarding availability to 6 different types of WHP through The Danish Work Environment Cohort Study in 2010. Logistic regression analyses adjusted for age, gender and industry were performed to calculate odds ratios for availability and participation of WHP among groups with different health behaviours and health status. In general, poor health behaviours were associated with reduced availability of and participation in WHP. In contrast, poor health status was generally associated with higher availability of WHP and increased participation. However, poor self-rated health was associated with lower availability of several types of WHP and reduced participation. In general, workers with health challenges that are visible to others had WHP available, whereas workers with less visible health challenges had WHP less frequently available. Health challenges visible to others were associated with higher participation in WHP, whereas poor health behaviour and reduced self-rated health were associated with reduced participation in WHP programmes.
An imbalance between physical work demands and physical capacity of the worker may be a risk factor for poor health. Perceived physical exertion provides information about the individual perception of the work demands relative to the capacity to perform the work. This study estimates the risk for long-term sickness absence (LTSA) from perceived physical exertion among healthcare workers.
This prospective cohort study comprises 8592 Danish healthcare workers who responded to a baseline questionnaire in 2004-2005 and subsequently were followed for one year in the Danish Register for Evaluation of Marginalization (DREAM), a national register of social transfer payments. Using Cox regression hazard ratio (HR) analysis, controlled for age, gender, body mass index (BMI), smoking, tenure, leisure-time physical activity, psychosocial working conditions, and LTSA during one year prior to baseline, we modeled risk estimates of moderate and strenuous (reference: light) perceived physical exertion during healthcare work for onset of LTSA (receiving sickness absence compensation for =8 consecutive weeks) during 1-year follow-up.
At baseline, 35.1%, 39.4%, and 25.5% of the healthcare workers experienced, respectively, light, moderate, and strenuous physical exertion during healthcare work. During follow-up, the 12-month prevalence of LTSA was 4.6%, 6.4%, and 8.9%, respectively, in these three exertion groups. A dose-response pattern between physical exertion and the risk for LTSA was found (trend test P
Mechanical joint stress imposed by high body mass index (BMI) is associated with increased risk of knee and hip osteoarthritis. This prospective study investigated the independent and joint association of BMI and physical exercise on risk of knee and hip osteoarthritis.
The study includes 15,191 women and 14,766 men in the Norwegian HUNT Study without pain or physical impairment at baseline. Occurrence of self-reported physician-diagnosed osteoarthritis was assessed at 11 years of follow-up.
BMI was positively related to risk of knee osteoarthritis (P(trend)0.34). Exercise intensity was not associated with risk of osteoarthritis in any BMI category; that is, obese persons reporting high-intensity exercise had an RR of 1.28 (95% CI 0.59 to 2.79) for severe osteoarthritis compared with inactive persons.
High BMI increases the risk of knee osteoarthritis and severe osteoarthritis. Physical exercise does not increase the risk of osteoarthritis at any level of BMI, suggesting that exercise could be encouraged also among individuals with excessive body mass, without concern for an increased risk of osteoarthritis.
This study investigated effects of physical exercise on musculoskeletal pain symptoms in all regions of the body, as well as on other musculoskeletal pain in association with neck pain. A single blind randomized controlled trial testing a one-year exercise intervention was performed among 549 office workers; specific neck/shoulder resistance training, all-round physical exercise, or a reference intervention. Pain symptoms were determined by questionnaire screening of twelve selected body regions. Case individuals were identified for each body region as those reporting pain intensities at baseline of 3 or more (scale of 0-9) during the last three months. For neck cases specifically, the additional number of pain regions was counted. Intensity of pain decreased significantly more in the neck, low back, right elbow and right hand in cases of the two exercise groups compared with the reference group (P