In aging societies, zest for work may be pivotal when deciding to stay occupationally active longer. Psychosocial work stress is a prevalent public health problem and may have an impact on zest for work. Work over-commitment (WOC) is a personal coping strategy for work stress with excessive striving and a health risk. However, the long-term effect of WOC on zest for work is poorly understood.
To investigate the age-related associations of work over-commitment with zest for work.
During 1996-1998 and 2000-2003, predominantly industrial workers (n?=?2940) participated in the WOLF-Norrland study and responded to a questionnaire referring to socio-demographics, WOC, zest for work, effort-reward imbalance proxies, and mental health. Age-adjusted multiple logistic regressions were performed with original and imputed datasets.
Cross-sectionally, work overcommitted middle-aged employees had an increased prevalence of poor zest for work compared to their contemporaries without WOC (OR: 3.74 [95%-CI 2.19; 6.40]). However, in a longitudinal analysis associations between onset of 'poor zest for work' and the WOC subscales 'need for approval' (OR: 3.29 [95%-CI 1.04; 10.37]) and 'inability to withdraw from work' (OR: 5.14 [95%-CI 1.32; 20.03]) were observed.
The longitudinal findings among older employees could be relevant regarding the expected need to remain occupationally active longer.
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a common heart rhythm disorder. Several life-style factors have been identified as risk factors for AF, but less is known about the impact of work-related stress. This study aims to evaluate the association between work-related stress, defined as job strain, and risk of AF.
Data from the Swedish WOLF study was used, comprising 10,121 working men and women. Job strain was measured by the demand-control model. Information on incident AF was derived from national registers. Cox proportional hazard regression was used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association between job strain and AF risk.
In total, 253 incident AF cases were identified during a total follow-up time of 132,387 person-years. Job strain was associated with AF risk in a time-dependent manner, with stronger association after 10.7 years of follow-up (HR 1.93, 95% CI 1.10-3.36 after 10.7 years, versus HR 1.11, 95% CI 0.67-1.83 before 10.7 years). The results pointed towards a dose-response relationship when taking accumulated exposure to job strain over time into account.
This study provides support to the hypothesis that work-related stress defined as job strain is linked to an increased risk of AF.
Recommendations regarding physical activity typically include both leisure time and occupational physical activity. However, the results from previous studies on occupational physical activity and the association with myocardial infarction have been inconsistent. The aim of this study was to investigate if occupational physical activity is associated with the risk of myocardial infarction.
Prospective cohort study.
Data from the Swedish Work, Lipids and Fibrinogen (WOLF) study was used, comprising 9961 employees (6849 men, 3112 women, mean age 42.7 years) having no history of myocardial infarction. The participants were categorised into 3 groups according to their level of occupational physical activity.
Data regarding incident myocardial infarction were obtained from the Swedish National Patient Register and the Cause of Death Register. Cox proportional hazard regression was used for estimation of HRs for different levels of occupational physical activity in relation to the risk of myocardial infarction.
During a mean follow-up of 13.1 years, 249 cases of incident myocardial infarction were identified. In analyses adjusted for age, sex and socioeconomic status, participants standing and walking more than 50% of their working day had an HR of 1.13 (95% CI 0.83 to 1.54), compared with participants seated more than 50% of their working day. The corresponding HR for participants whose work included lifting or carrying was 0.86 (95% CI 0.59 to 1.24). Further adjustment did not alter the results. Stratified analyses resulted in a significantly decreased risk for young people whose work included lifting or carrying, HR 0.37 (95% CI 0.17 to 0.84), compared with younger persons who sat most of their working day.
No significant association between occupational physical activity and the risk of myocardial infarction was observed in the total group of employees in this study. Based on the results from this study, occupational physical activity in general does not seem to be enough for reducing the risk of myocardial infarction.
Evidence on alcohol consumption as a risk factor for dementia usually relates to overall consumption. The role of alcohol-induced loss of consciousness is uncertain.
To examine the risk of future dementia associated with overall alcohol consumption and alcohol-induced loss of consciousness in a population of current drinkers.
Seven cohort studies from the UK, France, Sweden, and Finland (IPD-Work consortium) including 131?415 participants were examined. At baseline (1986-2012), participants were aged 18 to 77 years, reported alcohol consumption, and were free of diagnosed dementia. Dementia was examined during a mean follow-up of 14.4 years (range, 12.3-30.1). Data analysis was conducted from November 17, 2019, to May 23, 2020.
Self-reported overall consumption and loss of consciousness due to alcohol consumption were assessed at baseline. Two thresholds were used to define heavy overall consumption: greater than 14 units (U) (UK definition) and greater than 21 U (US definition) per week.
Dementia and alcohol-related disorders to 2016 were ascertained from linked electronic health records.
Of the 131?415 participants (mean [SD] age, 43.0 [10.4] years; 80?344 [61.1%] women), 1081 individuals (0.8%) developed dementia. After adjustment for potential confounders, the hazard ratio (HR) was 1.16 (95% CI, 0.98-1.37) for consuming greater than 14 vs 1 to 14 U of alcohol per week and 1.22 (95% CI, 1.01-1.48) for greater than 21 vs 1 to 21 U/wk. Of the 96?591 participants with data on loss of consciousness, 10?004 individuals (10.4%) reported having lost consciousness due to alcohol consumption in the past 12 months. The association between loss of consciousness and dementia was observed in men (HR, 2.86; 95% CI, 1.77-4.63) and women (HR, 2.09; 95% CI, 1.34-3.25) during the first 10 years of follow-up (HR, 2.72; 95% CI, 1.78-4.15), after excluding the first 10 years of follow-up (HR, 1.86; 95% CI, 1.16-2.99), and for early-onset (
The aim of this study was to investigate whether shift work (with or without night work) is associated with increased risk of breast cancer.
The population consisted of 4036 women. Data were obtained from WOLF (Work, Lipids, and Fibrinogen), a longitudinal cohort study. Information about baseline characteristics was based on questionnaire responses and medical examination. Cancer incidence from baseline to follow-up was obtained from the national cancer registry. Two exposure groups were identified: shift work with and without night work. The group with day work only was used as the reference group in the analysis. Cox regression analysis was used to calculate relative risk.
In total, 94 women developed breast cancer during follow-up. The average follow-up time was 12.4 years. The hazard ratio for breast cancer was 1.23 [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.70-2.17] for shifts without night work and 2.02 (95% CI 1.03-3.95) for shifts with night work. When including only women
Shift work has been associated with an excess risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and more specifically myocardial infarction (MI). The majority of the studies that found a positive association between shift work and CVD have been based on incidence data. The results from studies on cardiovascular-related mortality among shift workers have shown little or no elevated mortality associated with shift work. None of the previous studies have analysed short-term mortality (case fatality) after MI. Therefore, we investigated whether shift work is associated with increased case fatality after MI compared with day workers.
Data on incident cases with first MI were obtained from case-control study conducted in two geographical sites in Sweden (Stockholm Heart Epidemiology Program and Västernorrland Heart Epidemiology Program), including 1,542 cases (1,147 men and 395 women) of MI with complete working time information and 65 years or younger. Case fatality was defined as death within 28 days of onset of MI. Risk estimates were calculated using logistic regression.
The crude odds ratios for case fatality among male shift workers were 1.63 [95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.12, 2.38] and 0.56 (95 % CI 0.26, 1.18) for female shift workers compared with day workers. Adjustments for established cardiovascular risk factors such as diabetes type II and socio-economic status did not alter the results.
Shift work was associated with increased risk of case fatality among male shift workers after the first MI.
The objective of this study was to investigate the validity of the effort-reward imbalance (ERI) model in relation to disturbed sleep and fatigue.
The study population derived from a subset of the WOLF (WOrk, Lipids, Fibrinogen) cohort study of cardiovascular risk in a working population who replied to the ERI-questionnaire comprising 789 men and 214 women. Cox regression analysis was used to calculate the prevalence ratio (PR) for sleep disorders and fatigue in relation to the components of ERI.
As sleep disturbances and fatigue, based on literature, were defined to be represented by the uppermost quintile, 14% of the men and 23% of the women were affected by sleep disturbances while 14 and 26%, respectively, were affected by fatigue. Higher levels of exposure for the ERI components were associated with increased prevalence of sleep disturbances and fatigue. For men, the strongest association was seen between high overcommitment and fatigue (PR 5.77, 95% confidence interval 2.89-11.5). For women, high effort and sleep disturbances (PR 4.04, CI 1.53-10.7), high effort/reward ratio and sleep disturbances (PR 4.13, CI 1.62-10.5), and between low reward and fatigue (PR 4.36, CI 1.79-10.6) yielded the most obvious associations.
The present study adds sleep disturbances and fatigue to the list of adverse consequences of effort-reward imbalance.
Shift work is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease, but the causes have not yet been fully established. It has been proposed that the coronary risk factors are more hazardous for shift workers, resulting in a potential interaction effect with shift work.
To analyse interaction effects of work schedule and established risk factors for coronary artery disease on the risk of myocardial infarction.
This analysis was conducted in SHEEP/VHEEP, a case-control study conducted in two counties in Sweden, comprising all first-time cases of myocardial infarction among men and women 45-70 years of age with controls stratified by sex, age, and hospital catchment area, totalling to 4648 participants. Synergy index (SI) was used as the main outcome analysis method for interaction analysis.
There was an interaction effect between shift work and physical inactivity on the risk of myocardial infarction with SI of 2.05 (95% CI 1.07 to 3.92) for male shift workers. For female shift workers, interaction effects were found with high waist-hip ratio (SI 4.0, 95% CI 1.12 to 14.28) and elevated triglycerides (SI 5.69, 95% CI 1.67 to 19.38).
Shift work and some established coronary risk factors have significant interactions.
This study analyzed the potential association between shift work and ischemic stroke.
The analysis was carried out using a nested case-control study consisting of 138 shift workers and 469 day workers from the register of the Northern Sweden Monitoring of Trends and Determinants in Cardiovascular Diseases (MONICA) study and the Västerbotten Intervention Programme. Logistic regression analysis was used to analyze the risk estimate for day workers in a comparison with shift workers and the risk of ischemic stroke.
The crude odds ratio for shift workers' risk of experiencing an ischemic stroke was 1.0 (95% confidence interval 0.6-1.8) for both the men and the women. The risk estimates were consistent despite the introduction of several recognized risk factors for ischemic stroke in the logistic regression models.
In the present study, none of the findings indicated a higher risk of shift workers undergoing an ischemic stroke than day workers.
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to analyze the relationship of job strain (high psychological job demands and low decision latitude) to hypertension, serum lipids, and plasmafibrinogen. METHODS: The study population consisted of employed persons between the ages of 15 and 64 years in the counties of Stockholm, V?sternorrland, and J?mtland, Sweden. The data collection was carried out during 1992-1998. A total of 10,382 subjects participated in a medical examination and completed a questionnaire. RESULTS: No strong associations were found between job strain and plasma fibrinogen. The males reporting job strain had lower levels of total cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol than the other males. Similar tendencies were found for the females. The females, but not the males, with job strain had an increased prevalence of hypertension when compared with the subjects with relaxed psychosocial work characteristics. In the subgroups of younger males and females an adverse association between job strain and the ratio between low-density and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol was noted. CONCLUSIONS: The results do not support the hypothesis that job strain has an adverse impact on serum total cholesterol and plasma fibrinogen levels. They suggest that an increased risk of coronary heart disease in association with job strain, if causal, is mediated by other factors, possibly partly by hypertension and low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol.