BACKGROUND: Thrombin activation measured by the levels of the complex between activated protein C (APC) and the protein C inhibitor (PCI) is elevated in several atherosclerotic disorders. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether levels of the APC-PCI complex are related to the prognosis in peripheral arterial disease (PAD). Longitudinal study performed at the Vascular Centre, Malm? University Hospital, Sweden. METHODS: APC-PCI complex levels were analyzed in 268 consecutive patients hospitalized for PAD and in 42 healthy controls (median age, 74 years). Patients (n = 35) with warfarin treatment less than 4 weeks before APC-PCI sampling were excluded from analysis. Data-based medical records of all 233 remaining patients (median age, 72 [64-79] years) were searched for vascular events such as hospitalization because of atherosclerotic disease, operative or endovascular recanalization of peripheral arteries, transtibial or transfemoral amputation because of PAD, acute coronary syndrome, stroke, or death. RESULTS: Median duration of follow-up was 16 months (interquartile range, 12-23 months). APC-PCI complex levels were higher in PAD patients than in controls (0.240 [0.180-0.320] microg/L vs. 0.140 [0.190-0.220] microg/L; p
To improve compliance with abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) screening in low compliance areas, individually tailored invitations were developed in collaboration with a professional advertising agency. Compliance increased in two intervention municipalities from 71.4% in 2010-2012 to 78.1% in 2013 (p?=?0.025), and was then higher [odds ratio 1.7; 95% confidence interval 1.1-2.6; p?=?0.013] than in two control municipalities in which compliance was unchanged (417/552 [75.5%] in 2010-12 and 122/180 [67.8%] in 2013). Compliance with AAA-screening can be increased by collaboration with a professional advertising agency, albeit at a comparably high cost.
Deep venous thrombosis (DVT) is much less common in the upper than in the lower extremity. Furthermore, there is limited information on risk factors for and the prognosis of upper extremity (UE)DVT in the general population.
To estimate incidence, risk factors, and prognosis in UEDVT.
Among a total of 1203 patients with venous thromboembolism (VTE) diagnosed during 1998-2006 in the prospective population-based Malmö thrombophilia study, 63 (5%, 33 men [52%, age 54+/-17years], and 30 women [48%, age 55+/-22years]) had UEDVT and were evaluated concerning risk factors, treatment, recurrent VTE, and mortality.
At diagnosis, 19(30%) patients had known malignancy and 6(10%) had VTE heredity. Among female UEDVT patients 4(13%) used hormone therapy, 1(3%) was pregnant, while none was in the postpartum period. Of all 63 UEDVT patients, 12(19%) were heterozygous, and 3(5%) homozygous for the Factor V Leiden (FVL)-mutation. Two (3%) patients were heterozygous for the prothrombin mutation, and 1 patient (1.6%) showed both heterozygous FVL-mutation and lupus anticoagulant antibodies. Phlebography had been used for diagnosis in 48(76%), ultrasonography in 16(25%), and computer tomography (CT) in 9(14%) patients. Twenty-two patients (35%) were treated in hospital, and the remaining 41(65%) as out-patients. Sixty-two (98%) was treated with low molecular weight heparin (LMH), 60(95%) with oral anticoagulants (OAC), 3(5%) with unfractionated heparin, and 3(5%) with thrombolysis. VTE recurrence rate during median 62 (range 31-117) month of follow-up was 8/63(13%). Fifteen (24%) UEDVT patients died during follow-up; 9(47%) of the 19 patients with known malignancy at diagnosis and 6(14%) of the other patients. Yearly incidence of UEDVT was 3.6/100.000 (95% confidence interval [CI], 3.3 - 4.03).
Malignancies and the FVL mutation were common among patients with UEDVT. Mortality during follow-up vas high.
We evaluated whether matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) 2 and 9, their inhibitors, markers for fibrinolysis, and thrombin activation are associated with diameter and growth of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs). Material and Methods: Matrix metalloproteinases 2 and 9, tissue inhibitor of MMPs (TIMP-1), serpine-1, tPa-serpine-1, and activated protein C- protein C inhibitor (APC-PCI) complex were analyzed in 353 patients with AAA grouped according to AAA size, and 219 gender- and age-matched healthy individuals. Follow-up of AAA growth for up to 7 years was possible in 178 of 353 patients. Results: At baseline, all groups of patients with AAA showed lower levels of MMP-2 and -9, and higher levels of TIMP-1, serpine-1, and t-Pa-serpine-1 than controls. Matrix metalloproteinase 2 correlated inversely and APC-PCI complex correlated directly with AAA diameter. We found no correlations between markers for proteolysis, fibrinolysis, coagulation, and yearly AAA growth. CONCLUSION: Matrix metalloproteinase 2 is lower and APC-PCI higher in patients with larger AAA, but the relevance of the markers for AAA growth is far from clarified.
The aim of this study was to evaluate whether screening for abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) has led to a decrease in ruptured AAA (rAAA) incidence.
The Malmö population was evaluated regarding the incidence of rAAA and elective AAA surgery 4 years before and after start of AAA-screening in 2010. Data from 1971 to 1986 (J Vasc Surg 18:74-80, 1993) and 2000-2004 (J Vasc Surg 44:237-43, 2006), enabled analysis of trends over time.
Analysis of time-periods 1971-1986, 2000-2004, 2006-2010 and 2010-2014 showed an incidence of rAAA of 5.6 (4.9-6.3), 10.6 (8.9-12.4), 6.1 (4.6-7.6) and 4.0 (2.9-5.1), respectively. In men aged 60-69 years the incidences were 16.0 (10.7-21.3), 45.6 (27.7-63.4), 19.3 (9.2-35.3) and 8.9 (2.8-20.6), respectively. The incidences of elective AAA surgery in men aged 60-69 years were 22.9 (16.5-29.2), 34.6 (19.1-50.2), 9.7 (1.2-18.5) and 44.2 (27.0-61.6), respectively.
A decrease in incidence of rAAA in men was evident before the implementation of screening. We were yet not able to demonstrate a certain reduction in rAAA incidence after the start of screening.
The aim of this study was to assess cardiovascular predictors for all-cause long-term mortality in patients undergoing standard endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) for infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). Consecutive patients treated with EVAR (Zenith(®) stent grafts; Cook) between May 1998 and February 2006 were prospectively enrolled in a computerized database, together with retrospectively collected data on medication, and electrocardiographic and echocardiographic variables. Mortality was assessed on 1 December 2010. The median follow-up time was 68 months and the median age was 74 years (range 53-89) for the 304 patients. Mortality at the end of follow-up was 54.3% (165/304). The proportion of deaths caused by vascular diseases was 61% (101/165). In the univariate analysis, low preoperative ejection fraction (EF) (p = 0.004), absence of statin medication (p = 0.007), and medication with diuretics (p = 0.028) or digitalis (p = 0.016) were associated with an increased long-term mortality rate. Myocardial ischemia on electrocardiogram (ECG) (hazard ratio (HR) 1.6 [95% CI 1.1-2.4]) and anemia (HR 1.5 [95% CI 1.0-2.1]) were found to be independent predictors for long-term mortality after Cox regression analysis. There was a trend that chronic kidney disease, stage = 3 (HR 1.5 [95% CI 1.0-2.2]), and age 80 years and above (HR 1.5 [95% CI 1.0-2.4]) were independently associated with long-term mortality. In conclusion, ischemia on ECG and anemia were independently related to an increased long-term mortality rate after EVAR, and these predictive factors seem to be most important for critical assessment in the preoperative medical work-up.
Impaired glucose metabolism and diabetes mellitus has been linked to a decreased risk for abdominal aortic aneurysm development in men. We evaluated potential relationships between blood glucose levels in 1722 men with mean age 34 years and their aortic diameter measured by ultrasound at age 65 years.
Prospective cohort study.
Mean follow-up between baseline glucose investigation and aortic ultrasound was 32.8?±?1.8 years. There was no correlation between baseline blood glucose and later aortic diameter (r?=?0.035, p?=?0.146), whereas a weak correlation between body mass index (BMI) and aortic diameter was observed (r?=?0.097 p?
To evaluate the risk for recurrence after first venous thromboembolism (VTE) among patients with or without Factor V Leiden (FVL) mutation.
A prospective population based study of 1465 consecutive unselected VTE patients was performed at Skåne University Hospital 1998-2008. The VTE was objectively verified and the patients answered questionnaire and left blood samples for evaluation.
Out of 1465 patients (721[49%] men and 744[51%] women) thrombophilia data were available for 1267, and FVL mutation was found in heterozygous form in 339 (27). The homozygous form and prothrombin mutation (PTM) were much less common. Patients were followed during 4.8 ± 2.3 years (total 6133 patient years) and recurrence after first VTE (evaluated in 1108 patients) occurred in 131 (12%, 95%CI 10-14%), where of 49(37%) had heterozygous FVL mutation and 57(44%) were without thrombophilia. The remaining 25(19%) patients had either PTM, FVL in homozygous form, compound PTM/FVL or unknown thrombophilia status. Having FVL mutation in heterozygous form significantly increased the risk for VTE recurrence (odds ratio 2.4 (95 %CI 1.6-3.6; p
All 74 patients treated with vena cava filter insertion during 1991-2000 at Malmö University Hospital were reviewed. Thirty-nine patients (53%) died during follow-up. Indications for permanent filter insertion (n = 63, age 25-89 years, 35 men) were contraindication for or side effects of anticoagulant treatment, or pulmonary embolism during anticoagulant treatment. Temporary vena cava filters (n = 11, age 19-85 years, three men) were inserted during surgery or thrombolysis. No complications occurred during temporary filter insertion. During 33 (1-120) months of follow-up of patients with permanent vena cava filters 37 patients (59%) died, thrombosis of the inferior vena cava occurred in 14 patients (22%), and recurrent pulmonary embolism in five patients (8%). Vena cava filter insertion should be considered as an alternative treatment in a selected group of patients with contraindications to or insufficient effect of anticoagulant treatment.