To estimate alcohol consumption among Danish adults with diabetes and to investigate whether certain comorbidities are related to a high alcohol intake.
A total of 162,283 participants responded to the Danish National Health Survey 2013 (questionnaire study, response rate 54.0%). Variables on the participants were extracted from the survey and 6.5% of respondents reported having diabetes. High alcohol consumption was defined as >21 (men) or >14 (women) standard drinks per week.
High alcohol consumption was reported by 11.2 % of men and 4.3% of women with diabetes. In the women, this was fewer than among women without diabetes (odds ratio (OR) 0.65, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.56-0.77, p
OBJECTIVE: Concomitant prescription of more than 1 antipsychotic agent (antipsychotic polypharmacy) in the treatment of schizophrenia is prevalent, although monotherapy is generally recommended. Mortality from natural causes is markedly increased in schizophrenia, and the role of polypharmacy remains controversial. The objective was to investigate if antipsychotic polypharmacy is associated with the excess mortality from natural causes among patients with schizophrenia. METHOD: A population-based nested case-control study was conducted using patient data from January 1, 1996, to December 31, 2005, obtained from central Danish registers. From the study population of 27,633 patients with ICD-8- and ICD-10-diagnosed schizophrenia or other mainly nonaffective psychoses, aged 18-53 years, we identified 193 cases who died of natural causes within a 2-year period and 1,937 age- and sex-matched controls. Current drug use was defined as at least 1 prescription filled within 90 days before the date of death or the index date. The data were analyzed by conditional logistic regression. RESULTS: Risk of natural death did not increase with the number of concurrently used antipsychotic agents compared with antipsychotic monotherapy (no antipsychotics: adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 1.48 [95% CI, 0.89-2.46]; 2 antipsychotics: OR = 0.91 [95% CI, 0.61-1.36]; 3 or more antipsychotics: OR = 1.16 [95% CI, 0.68-2.00]). Current use of benzodiazepine derivatives with long elimination half-lives (more than 24 hours) was associated with increased risk of natural death in patients with schizophrenia treated with antipsychotics (OR = 1.78 [95% CI, 1.25-2.52]). CONCLUSIONS: Antipsychotic polypharmacy did not contribute to the excess mortality from natural causes in middle-aged patients with schizophrenia. The detected increased risk of death associated with benzodiazepines with long elimination half-lives calls for further clarification.
Aripiprazole is a partial dopamine agonist with only minor neurological and psychiatric adverse effects, making it a potential first-line drug for the treatment of psychiatric disorders. However, the evidence of its use in children and adolescents is rather sparse. The aim of this case study is to discuss adverse drug reaction (ADR) reports concerning aripiprazole-associated neurological and psychiatric events in children and adolescents. The ADR report database at Danish Medicines Agency was searched for all ADRs involving children and adolescents (
Neuregulin 1 has been implicated as a susceptibility gene in schizophrenia. Several research groups have reported association with the 5' end of the gene although no causative variant has been reported. We have investigated whether there is association with the 5' end of the gene in Danish schizophrenia patients. We found that the at-risk haplotype initially reported in the Icelandic population was not found in significant excess (or = 1.4, p = 0.12). The haplotype structure in the Danish sample was similar to that of other reported in other Caucasian populations and highly different from that of Chinese.
The incidence of the metabolic syndrome, a major risk factor for diabetes and cardiovascular disease, is increasing worldwide and is suggested to be higher among psychiatric patients, especially those on antipsychotic treatment.
To assess the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in Danish psychiatric outpatients and compare it with the general population.
In a cross-sectional, observational study in 2007-08, 170 Danish outpatients on antipsychotic drug treatment were monitored for the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome based on the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) definition and compared with a general population group of 3303 randomly selected Danes.
Of the antipsychotic-treated patients 48.2% fulfilled the IDF criteria for the metabolic syndrome, compared with 29.6% of the general population. The antipsychotic-treated patients had higher rates of increased waist circumference, triglyceride and glucose levels, and lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Compared with the general population, the odds ratio (OR) of the metabolic syndrome among antipsychotic-treated patients was 2.2. After adjustment for age and sex, the OR increased to 2.7. In the antipsychotic-treated group, statistically different rates of the metabolic syndrome for patients in monopharmacy vs. polypharmacy, and for patients in monotherapy with first-generation vs. second-generation antipsychotics, could not be found.
The metabolic syndrome is highly prevalent among a Danish outpatient population treated with antipsychotics compared with the general population. Monitoring of lipid and glucose levels, blood pressure and waist circumference before start-up and during treatment with antipsychotic medication is of pivotal importance in order to prevent diabetes and cardiovascular disease in this patient population.
Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and other psychotropics are receiving increasing attention due to reports on inhibition of thrombocyte function and an increased bleeding risk in surgical settings. Studies in total hip and total knee arthroplasty (THA and TKA, respectively) have shown conflicting results, questioning whether the potential increased bleeding risk is of clinical importance.
Prospective consecutive collection of data on preoperative comorbidity in patients undergoing primary unilateral THA or TKA was cross-referenced with regional transfusion databases and The Danish National Database of Reimbursed Prescriptions for information regarding blood transfusions and psychopharmacologic treatment. All participating orthopedic centers followed similar perioperative guidelines. Multiple logistic regression analysis was applied to calculate odds ratios (ORs) for transfusion between preoperative users and nonusers of psychotropics.
Of 8402 patients, 569 (6.8%) were SSRI users versus 7833 (93.2%) nonusers. A total of 109 (19,2%) patients in the SSRI group and 700 (8.9%) in the "no-SSRI" group received blood intra- or postoperatively. Preoperative SSRI treatment was a risk factor for perioperative transfusion (OR, 1.98; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.44-2.70). Other antidepressants (OAs) were associated with an increased risk of transfusion (OR, 1.69; 95% CI, 1.17-2.44) as well as the combination of SSRIs and OAs (OR, 3.31; 95% CI, 1.79-6.13). Singular use of antipsychotics (APs) increased the transfusion risk (OR, 2.37; 95% CI, 1.04-2.41), while AP medicine in combination with antidepressants did not.
Preoperative treatment with SSRIs, OAs, or APs are independent risk factors for blood transfusion in elective fast-track THA and TKA.