Since beta2-adrenergic receptors are important regulators of blood pressure, genetic variation in this receptor could explain risk of elevated blood pressure in selected individuals. We tested the hypothesis that Gly16Arg, Gln27Glu, and Thr164Ile in the beta2-adrenergic receptor gene associated with elevated blood pressure.
We genotyped 9185 individuals from the adult Danish general population.
Allele frequencies of 16Arg, 27Glu, and 164Ile were 0.38, 0.44, and 0.01, respectively. Among women never treated with antihypertensive medication those heterozygous for Thr164Ile versus non-carriers had increased diastolic blood pressure (P=0.02). Women heterozygous for Thr164Ile versus non-carriers had an odds ratio for elevated blood pressure of 1.93 (95% CI: 1.30-2.86). Finally, women double heterozygous for Thr164Ile and Gln27Glu or Gly16Arg versus non-carriers at all 3 loci had an odds ratio for elevated blood pressure of 2.49 (1.28-4.85) or 3.19 (1.46-6.97). In men, blood pressure was not influenced by this genetic variation.
In women Thr164Ile heterozygosity is associated with increased diastolic blood pressure, and represent a risk factor for elevated blood pressure in women in the general population. This was most pronounced in those women also heterozygous for Gln27Glu or Gly16Arg.
Although animal studies indicate that liver X receptor alpha (LXRa) might influence risk of atherosclerosis, data in humans remain scarce. We tested the hypothesis that genetic variation in LXRa associates with risk of ischemic vascular disease and/or plasma lipid and lipoprotein levels in the general population.
We studied 10,281 white persons of Danish ancestry from a general population cohort, including 1,986 in whom ischemic heart disease (IHD) developed, and 989 in whom ischemic cerebrovascular disease developed. We examined another 51,429 white persons of Danish ancestry from a general population study, including 3,789 with IHD. We genotyped 10 genetic variants identified by resequencing LXRa. Homozygosity for -840AA/-115AA(=2.7%) predicted hazard ratios of 1.3 (95% confidence interval, 1.0-1.7) for IHD, 1.6 (1.2-2.2) for myocardial infarction, and 1.7 (1.3-2.4) for ischemic cerebrovascular disease. The corresponding odds ratios in the second cohort were 1.1 (0.9-1.4) for IHD and 1.5 (1.1-2.0) for myocardial infarction. In the combined studies, odds ratios were 1.2 (1.0-1.4) for IHD and 1.5 (1.2-1.9) for myocardial infarction. Homozygosity for -840AA/-115AA did not associate with lipid or lipoprotein levels. LXRa -1830T>C (tagging the haplotype -1830C/-840A/-115A, all r(2)=0.97) associated with 91% increased transcriptional activity.
This study suggests that functional genetic variation in LXRa predicts risk of ischemic vascular disease in the general population.
The lysosphingolipid sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) is carried in the blood in association with lipoproteins, predominantly high density lipoproteins (HDL). Emerging evidence suggests that many of the effects of HDL on cardiovascular function may be attributable to its S1P cargo.
Here we have evaluated how levels of S1P and related sphingolipids in an HDL-containing fraction of human serum correlate with occurrence of ischemic heart disease (IHD). To accomplish this we used liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry to measure S1P levels in the HDL-containing fraction of serum (depleted of LDL and VLDL) from 204 subjects in the Copenhagen City Heart Study (CCHS). The study group consisted of individuals having high serum HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) (females:= 73.5 mg/dL; males:= 61.9 mg/dL) and verified IHD; subjects with high HDL-C and no IHD; individuals with low HDL-C (females:= 38.7 mg/dL; males:= 34.1 mg/dL) and IHD, and subjects with low HDL-C and no IHD.
The results show a highly significant inverse relationship between the level of S1P in the HDL-containing fraction of serum and the occurrence of IHD. Furthermore, an inverse relationship with IHD was also observed for two other sphingolipids, dihydro-S1P and C24:1-ceramide, in the HDL-containing fraction of serum. Additionally, we demonstrated that the amount of S1P on HDL correlates with the magnitude of HDL-induced endothelial cell barrier signaling.
These findings indicate that compositional differences of sphingolipids in the HDL-containing fraction of human serum are related to the occurrence of IHD, and may contribute to the putative protective role of HDL in IHD.