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Association of heart failure severity with risk of diabetes: a Danish nationwide cohort study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature260831
Source
Diabetologia. 2014 Aug;57(8):1595-600
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-2014
Author
Malene N Demant
Gunnar H Gislason
Lars Køber
Allan Vaag
Christian Torp-Pedersen
Charlotte Andersson
Source
Diabetologia. 2014 Aug;57(8):1595-600
Date
Aug-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Cohort Studies
Denmark
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 - epidemiology - etiology
Female
Heart Failure - complications - diagnosis - epidemiology
Humans
Incidence
Male
Middle Aged
Prognosis
Registries
Risk
Severity of Illness Index
Abstract
Heart failure has been suggested to increase the risk of developing diabetes. We investigated the relation between heart failure severity, defined by loop-diuretic dosage, and the risk of developing diabetes in a nationwide cohort of patients with heart failure.
We followed all Danish patients discharged from hospitalisation for first-time heart failure in 1997-2010, without prior use of hypoglycaemic agents, until a claimed prescription for hypoglycaemic agents, death or 31 December 2010. The association of loop-diuretic dosage (furosemide equivalents) 90 days after discharge (study baseline) with risk of diabetes was estimated by multivariate Cox regression models.
In total, 99,362 patients were included and divided into five loop-diuretic dose groups: 30,838 (31%) used no loop diuretics; 24,389 (25%) used >0-40 mg/day; 17,355 (17%) used >40-80 mg/day; 11,973 (12%) used >80-159 mg/day; and 14,807 (15%) used =160 mg/day. A total of 7,958 patients (8%) developed diabetes. Loop-diuretic dosages were associated with an increased risk of developing diabetes in a dose-dependent manner. Concomitant use of renin-angiotensin system inhibitors (RASis) attenuated the risk (p value for interaction
Notes
Comment In: Nat Rev Endocrinol. 2014 Aug;10(8):453-424981458
Comment In: Diabetologia. 2014 Sep;57(9):200025005335
PubMed ID
24849568 View in PubMed
Less detail

Association of parental history of type 2 diabetes with age, lifestyle, anthropometric factors, and clinical severity at type 2 diabetes diagnosis: results from the DD2 study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature278529
Source
Diabetes Metab Res Rev. 2016 Mar;32(3):308-15
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-2016
Author
Elisabeth Svensson
Klara Berencsi
Simone Sander
Anil Mor
Jørgen Rungby
Jens Steen Nielsen
Søren Friborg
Ivan Brandslund
Jens Sandahl Christiansen
Allan Vaag
Henning Beck-Nielsen
Henrik Toft Sørensen
Reimar Wernich Thomsen
Source
Diabetes Metab Res Rev. 2016 Mar;32(3):308-15
Date
Mar-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Age Factors
Anthropometry
Body mass index
Cross-Sectional Studies
Denmark - epidemiology
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 - diagnosis - epidemiology
Female
Humans
Life Style
Male
Middle Aged
Prevalence
Risk factors
Severity of Illness Index
Weight Gain
Abstract
We investigated whether parental history of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) is associated with age, lifestyle, anthropometric factors, and clinical severity at the time of T2D diagnosis.
We conducted a cross-sectional study based on the Danish Centre for Strategic Research in Type 2 Diabetes cohort. We examined the prevalence ratios (PR) of demographic, lifestyle, anthropometric, and clinical factors according to parental history, using Poisson regression adjusting for age and gender.
Of 2825 T2D patients, 34% (n?=?964) had a parental history of T2D. Parental history was associated with younger age at diagnosis [adjusted (a)PR 1.66, 95% confidence interval: 1.19, 2.31) for age
PubMed ID
26408959 View in PubMed
Less detail

Carotid intima-media thickness is reduced 12 months after gastric bypass surgery in obese patients with type 2 diabetes or impaired glucose tolerance.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature260679
Source
J Diabetes Complications. 2014 Jul-Aug;28(4):517-22
Publication Type
Article
Author
Louise Lundby-Christensen
Lise Tarnow
Dorte L Hansen
Dorte Worm
Lars S Naver
Lisbeth E Hvolris
Niels Wiinberg
Allan Vaag
Thomas P Almdal
Source
J Diabetes Complications. 2014 Jul-Aug;28(4):517-22
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Body mass index
Carotid Intima-Media Thickness
Denmark - epidemiology
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 - blood - complications
Diabetic Angiopathies - complications - epidemiology - prevention & control - ultrasonography
Down-Regulation
Female
Gastric Bypass
Glucose Intolerance - blood - complications
Hemoglobin A, Glycosylated - analysis
Humans
Hyperglycemia - prevention & control
Hypertension - complications - epidemiology - prevention & control
Male
Middle Aged
Obesity, Morbid - blood - complications - surgery
Risk factors
Vascular Diseases - complications - epidemiology - prevention & control - ultrasonography
Weight Loss
Young Adult
Abstract
To investigate whether Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery (RYGB) - an in vivo model for normalisation of hyperglycaemia - improves carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D)/impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and normal glucose tolerance (NGT).
Observational prospective study, 34 obese patients (T2D (n = 14)/IGT (n = 4), and NGT (n = 16)) were investigated before and six and 12months after RYGB.
Mean carotid IMT was significantly reduced 12months after RYGB in patients with T2D/IGT (-0.041 mm (95% CI -0.069; -0.012, p = 0.005)) but not in patients with NGT (-0.010 mm (-0.039; 0.020, p = 0.52)). The between-group difference was not significant (p=0.13). Twelve months after RYGB, patients with respectively T2D/IGT and NGT demonstrated changes in weight: -29.9 kg, p
PubMed ID
24685364 View in PubMed
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Do gene variants influencing adult adiposity affect birth weight? A population-based study of 24 loci in 4,744 Danish individuals.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature138658
Source
PLoS One. 2010;5(12):e14190
Publication Type
Article
Date
2010
Author
Ehm A Andersson
Kasper Pilgaard
Charlotta Pisinger
Marie N Harder
Niels Grarup
Kristine Færch
Camilla Sandholt
Pernille Poulsen
Daniel R Witte
Torben Jørgensen
Allan Vaag
Oluf Pedersen
Torben Hansen
Author Affiliation
Hagedorn Research Institute, Gentofte, Denmark.
Source
PLoS One. 2010;5(12):e14190
Date
2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adiposity - genetics
Alleles
Birth weight
Body Composition
Body mass index
Denmark
Female
Genetic Variation
Genome-Wide Association Study
Genotype
Humans
Infant, Newborn
Infant, Premature
Models, Genetic
Obesity - genetics
Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide
Pregnancy
Abstract
Several obesity risk alleles affecting adult adiposity have been identified by the recent wave of genome wide association studies. We aimed to examine the potential effect of these variants on fetal body composition by investigating the variants in relation to birth weight and ponderal index of the newborn.
Midwife records from the Danish State Archives provided information on mother's age, parity, as well as birth weight, birth length and prematurity of the newborn in 4,744 individuals of the population-based Inter99 study. Twenty-four risk alleles showing genome-wide associations with adult BMI and/or waist circumference were genotyped. None of the 24 risk variants tested showed an association with birth weight or ponderal index after correction for multiple testing. Birth weight was divided into three categories low (=10(th) percentile), normal (10(th)-90(th) percentile) and high birth weight (=90th percentile) to allow for non-linear associations. There was no difference in the number of risk alleles between the groups (p?=?0.57). No interactions between each risk allele and birth weight in the prediction of adult BMI were observed. An obesity risk score was created by summing up risk alleles. The risk score did not associate with fetal body composition. Moreover there was no interaction between the risk score and birth weight/ponderal index in the prediction of adult BMI.
24 common variants associated with adult adiposity did not affect or interact with birth weight among Danes suggesting that the effects of these variants predominantly arise in the post-natal life.
Notes
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PubMed ID
21152014 View in PubMed
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Effects of biphasic, basal-bolus or basal insulin analogue treatments on carotid intima-media thickness in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: the randomised Copenhagen Insulin and Metformin Therapy (CIMT) trial.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature278311
Source
BMJ Open. 2016 Feb 25;6(2):e008377
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-25-2016
Author
Louise Lundby-Christensen
Allan Vaag
Lise Tarnow
Thomas P Almdal
Søren S Lund
Jørn Wetterslev
Christian Gluud
Trine W Boesgaard
Niels Wiinberg
Hans Perrild
Thure Krarup
Ole Snorgaard
Birthe Gade-Rasmussen
Birger Thorsteinsson
Michael Røder
Elisabeth R Mathiesen
Tonny Jensen
Henrik Vestergaard
Christoffer Hedetoft
Leif Breum
Elsebeth Duun
Simone B Sneppen
Oluf Pedersen
Bianca Hemmingsen
Bendix Carstensen
Sten Madsbad
Source
BMJ Open. 2016 Feb 25;6(2):e008377
Date
Feb-25-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Blood Glucose - drug effects
Body Weight - drug effects
Carotid Intima-Media Thickness
Denmark
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 - drug therapy
Drug Administration Schedule
Female
Hemoglobin A, Glycosylated - drug effects
Humans
Hypoglycemia - drug therapy
Hypoglycemic Agents - administration & dosage - therapeutic use
Insulin - administration & dosage - therapeutic use
Insulin Aspart - administration & dosage - therapeutic use
Insulin Detemir - administration & dosage - therapeutic use
Male
Metformin - administration & dosage - therapeutic use
Middle Aged
Treatment Outcome
Abstract
To assess the effect of 3 insulin analogue regimens on change in carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) in patients with type 2 diabetes.
Investigator-initiated, randomised, placebo-controlled trial with a 2 × 3 factorial design, conducted at 8 hospitals in Denmark.
Participants with type 2 diabetes (glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) = 7.5% (= 58 mmol/mol), body mass index >25 kg/m(2)) were, in addition to metformin versus placebo, randomised to 18 months open-label biphasic insulin aspart 1-3 times daily (n=137) versus insulin aspart 3 times daily in combination with insulin detemir once daily (n=138) versus insulin detemir alone once daily (n=137), aiming at HbA1c = 7.0% (= 53 mmol/mol).
Primary outcome was change in mean carotid IMT (a marker of subclinical cardiovascular disease). HbA1c, insulin dose, weight, and hypoglycaemic and serious adverse events were other prespecified outcomes.
Carotid IMT change did not differ between groups (biphasic -0.009 mm (95% CI -0.022 to 0.004), aspart+detemir 0.000 mm (95% CI -0.013 to 0.013), detemir -0.012 mm (95% CI -0.025 to 0.000)). HbA1c was more reduced with biphasic (-1.0% (95% CI -1.2 to -0.8)) compared with the aspart+detemir (-0.4% (95% CI -0.6 to -0.3)) and detemir (-0.3% (95% CI -0.4 to -0.1)) groups (p
Notes
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PubMed ID
26916685 View in PubMed
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Effects of high-fat overfeeding on mitochondrial function, glucose and fat metabolism, and adipokine levels in low-birth-weight subjects.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature131281
Source
Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2012 Jan 1;302(1):E43-51
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-1-2012
Author
Charlotte Brøns
Stine Jacobsen
Natalie Hiscock
Andrew White
Emma Nilsson
David Dunger
Arne Astrup
Bjørn Quistorff
Allan Vaag
Author Affiliation
Steno Diabetes Center, Niels Steensens Vej 1, Gentofte, Denmark. charlotte.broens@rh.regionh.dk
Source
Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2012 Jan 1;302(1):E43-51
Date
Jan-1-2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adenosine Triphosphate - metabolism
Adipokines - blood
Adult
Cross-Over Studies
Denmark - epidemiology
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 - etiology
Dietary Fats - adverse effects
Gastric Inhibitory Polypeptide - blood
Glucose - metabolism
Humans
Infant, Low Birth Weight
Infant, Newborn
Insulin Resistance
Leptin - blood
Lipid Metabolism
Male
Mitochondria, Muscle - metabolism
Muscle, Skeletal - metabolism
Pancreatic Polypeptide - blood
Phosphocreatine - metabolism
Protein Precursors - blood
Registries
Young Adult
Abstract
Low birth weight (LBW) is associated with an increased risk of insulin resistance and downregulation of oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) genes when exposed to a metabolic challenge of high-fat overfeeding (HFO). To elaborate further on the differential effects of HFO in LBW subjects, we measured in vivo mitochondrial function, insulin secretion, hepatic glucose production, and plasma levels of key regulatory hormones before and after 5 days of HFO in 20 young LBW and 26 normal-birth-weight (NBW) men. The LBW subjects developed peripheral insulin resistance after HFO due to impaired endogenous glucose storage (9.42 ± 4.19 vs. 5.91 ± 4.42 mg·kg FFM(-1)·min(-1), P = 0.01). Resting muscle phosphorcreatine and total ATP in muscle increased significantly after HFO in LBW subjects only, whereas additional measurements of mitochondrial function remained unaffected. Despite similar plasma FFA levels, LBW subjects displayed increased fat oxidation during insulin infusion compared with normal-birth-weight (NBW) subjects after HFO (0.37 ± 0.35 vs. 0.17 ± 0.33 mg·kg FFM(-1)·min(-1), P = 0.02). In contrast to NBW subjects, the plasma leptin levels of LBW subjects did not increase, and the plasma gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP) as well as pancreatic polypeptide (PP) levels increased less in LBW compared with NBW subjects during HFO. In conclusion, HFO unmasks dissociation between insulin resistance and mitochondrial dysfunction in LBW subjects, suggesting that insulin resistance may be a cause, rather than an effect, of impaired muscle OXPHOS gene expression and mitochondrial dysfunction. Reduced increments in response to HFO of fasting plasma leptin, PP, and GIP levels may contribute to insulin resistance, lower satiety, and impaired insulin secretion in LBW subjects.
PubMed ID
21917634 View in PubMed
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Effects of oral glucose-lowering drugs on long term outcomes in patients with diabetes mellitus following myocardial infarction not treated with emergent percutaneous coronary intervention--a retrospective nationwide cohort study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature140790
Source
Cardiovasc Diabetol. 2010;9:54
Publication Type
Article
Date
2010
Author
Casper H Jørgensen
Gunnar H Gislason
Charlotte Andersson
Ole Ahlehoff
Mette Charlot
Tina K Schramm
Allan Vaag
Steen Z Abildstrøm
Christian Torp-Pedersen
Peter R Hansen
Author Affiliation
Department of Cardiology, Copenhagen University Hospital Gentofte, Hellerup, Denmark. cj@heart.dk
Source
Cardiovasc Diabetol. 2010;9:54
Date
2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Administration, Oral
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Angioplasty, Balloon, Coronary - statistics & numerical data
Cohort Studies
Comorbidity
Denmark - epidemiology
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 - drug therapy - mortality
Female
Humans
Hypoglycemic agents - therapeutic use
Male
Middle Aged
Myocardial Infarction - mortality - therapy
Proportional Hazards Models
Registries - statistics & numerical data
Retrospective Studies
Risk factors
Abstract
The optimum oral pharmacological treatment of diabetes mellitus to reduce cardiovascular disease and mortality following myocardial infarction has not been established. We therefore set out to investigate the association between individual oral glucose-lowering drugs and cardiovascular outcomes following myocardial infarction in patients with diabetes mellitus not treated with emergent percutaneous coronary intervention.
All patients aged 30 years or older receiving glucose-lowering drugs (GLDs) and admitted with myocardial infarction (MI) not treated with emergent percutaneous coronary intervention in Denmark during 1997-2006 were identified by individual-level linkage of nationwide registries of hospitalizations and drug dispensing from pharmacies. Multivariable Cox regression models adjusted for age, sex, calendar year, comorbidity, and concomitant pharmacotherapy were used to assess differences in the composite endpoint of non-fatal MI and cardiovascular mortality between individual GLDs, using metformin monotherapy as reference.
The study comprised 9876 users of GLDs admitted with MI. The mean age was 72.3 years and 56.5% of patients were men. A total of 3649 received sulfonylureas and 711 received metformin at admission. The average length of follow-up was 2.2 (SD 2.6) years. A total of 6,171 patients experienced the composite study endpoint. The sulfonylureas glibenclamide, glimepiride, glipizide, and tolbutamide were associated with increased risk of cardiovascular mortality and/or nonfatal MI with hazard ratios [HRs] of 1.31 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.17-1.46), 1.19 (1.06-1.32), 1.25 (1.11-1.42), and 1.18 (1.03-1.34), respectively, compared with metformin. Gliclazide was the only sulfonylurea not associated with increased risk compared with metformin (HR 1.03 [0.88-1.22]).
In patients with diabetes mellitus admitted with MI not treated with emergent percutaneous coronary intervention, monotherapy treatment with the sulfonylureas glibenclamide, glimepiride, glipizide, and tolbutamide was associated with increased cardiovascular risk compared with metformin monotherapy.
Notes
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PubMed ID
20843380 View in PubMed
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Further studies of the influence of apolipoprotein B alleles on glucose and lipid metabolism.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature47293
Source
Hum Biol. 2003 Oct;75(5):687-703
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-2003
Author
Joan Bentzen
Pernille Poulsen
Allan Vaag
Mogens Fenger
Author Affiliation
Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Hvidovre Hospital, Denmark. joanbentzen@hotmail.com
Source
Hum Biol. 2003 Oct;75(5):687-703
Date
Oct-2003
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Apolipoproteins B - genetics
Denmark - epidemiology
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 - epidemiology
Diseases in Twins - epidemiology - genetics
Female
Genotype
Glucose - genetics - metabolism
Humans
Incidence
Lipid Metabolism
Lipids - genetics
Logistic Models
Male
Middle Aged
Phenotype
Polymorphism, Genetic - genetics
Reference Values
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Twins, Dizygotic - statistics & numerical data
Twins, Monozygotic - statistics & numerical data
Abstract
The effect of five genetic polymorphisms in the apolipoprotein B gene on parameters of lipid and glucose metabolism was assessed in 564 Danish mono- and dizygotic twins. Genotypes in apolipoprotein B T71I (ApaLI RFLP), A591V (AluI RFLP), L2712P (MvaI RFLP), R3611Q (MspI RFLP), and E4154K (EcoRI RFLP) were established using polymerase chain reaction and restriction enzyme digests. The effect of genotypes on lipid levels and on glucose, insulin, and HOMA (i.e., calculated parameters of beta-cell function and insulin resistance) was assessed by multivariate analyses of variance correcting for the effect of gender, age, glucose tolerance status, and body mass index. The effect of genotype on the risk of having impaired glucose metabolism was calculated by logistic regression analysis. Finally, linkage between allele sharing and physiological parameters was calculated by the new Haseman-Elston method. The allele frequencies of all five polymorphisms were similar to those previously reported for Caucasian populations. The L2711P (MvaI RFLP) polymorphism influenced LDL-cholesterol and LDL-to-HDL measures (p = 0.04 and 0.03, respectively), while the R3611Q (MspI RFLP) polymorphism had an effect on the insulin-to-glucose ratio (p = 0.04), and E4154K (EcoRI RFLP) influenced HOMAbeta (p = 0.04). Significant interactions were observed between genotype in T71I (ApaLI RFLP), A591V (AluI RFLP), R3611Q (MspI RFLP), and E4154K (EcoRI RFLP) and glucose tolerance on lipid-related parameters (0.03
PubMed ID
14763605 View in PubMed
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Genetic and environmental influences on oxidative damage assessed in elderly Danish twins.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature136682
Source
Free Radic Biol Med. 2011 Jun 1;50(11):1488-91
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-1-2011
Author
Kasper Broedbaek
Rasmus Ribel-Madsen
Trine Henriksen
Allan Weimann
Morten Petersen
Jon T Andersen
Shoaib Afzal
Brian Hjelvang
L Jackson Roberts
Allan Vaag
Pernille Poulsen
Henrik E Poulsen
Author Affiliation
Laboratory of Clinical Pharmacology Q7642, Rigshospitalet, DK-2200 Copenhagen, Denmark. kasper.broedbaek@rh.regionh.dk
Source
Free Radic Biol Med. 2011 Jun 1;50(11):1488-91
Date
Jun-1-2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Biological Markers - urine
DNA Damage
Denmark
Deoxyguanosine - analogs & derivatives - urine
Environmental Exposure - adverse effects
F2-Isoprostanes - urine
Female
Guanosine - analogs & derivatives - urine
Humans
Lipid Peroxidation - genetics
Male
Middle Aged
Oxidation-Reduction
Oxidative Stress - genetics
Twins, Dizygotic - genetics - urine
Twins, Monozygotic - genetics - urine
Abstract
Previous studies have shown an association between oxidative stress and various diseases in humans including cancer, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and chronic respiratory disease. To what extents this damage is determined by genetic and environmental factors is unknown. In a classical twin study with 198 elderly twins we examined the contributions of genetic versus environmental factors to nucleic acid oxidation and lipid peroxidation. Urinary excretion of 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG), 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanosine (8-oxoGuo), and dinor,dihydro F2-isoprostane metabolites (F2-IsoP-M) was measured using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The environmental influence on nucleic acid oxidation and lipid peroxidation was predominant, leaving only little influence from genetic factors, as evidenced by no differences in intraclass correlations between monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins, neither for 8-oxodG (r(MZ)=0.55, r(DZ)=0.47; P=0.43), F(2)-IsoP-M (r(MZ)=0.33, r(DZ)=0.22; P=0.42), nor 8-oxoGuo (r(MZ)=0.45, r(DZ)=0.58; P=0.21). Accordingly, heritability estimates for the three markers of oxidative damage were low (h²=0.17-0.22). The three urinary markers of oxidative stress were closely correlated (r=0.60-0.84). In conclusion, we demonstrated in a large population of elderly Danish twins that "whole-body" oxidative damage to nucleic acids and lipids is predominantly determined by potentially modifiable nongenetic factors.
Notes
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PubMed ID
21354303 View in PubMed
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Genetic and metabolic effects on skeletal muscle AMPK in young and older twins.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature99480
Source
Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2009 Oct;297(4):E956-64
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-2009
Author
Brynjulf Mortensen
Pernille Poulsen
Lise Wegner
Kirstine L Stender-Petersen
Rasmus Ribel-Madsen
Martin Friedrichsen
Jesper B Birk
Allan Vaag
Jørgen F P Wojtaszewski
Author Affiliation
Department of Exercise and Sport Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Denmark. Brym@steno.dk
Source
Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2009 Oct;297(4):E956-64
Date
Oct-2009
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
AMP-Activated Protein Kinases - genetics - metabolism
Adult
Aged
Aging - metabolism
Anaerobic Threshold - genetics - physiology
Denmark
Female
Glucose - metabolism
Humans
Isoenzymes - genetics - metabolism
Lipid Metabolism - genetics - physiology
Male
Middle Aged
Muscle Fibers, Skeletal - metabolism
Muscle Proteins - biosynthesis - genetics
Muscle, Skeletal - cytology - enzymology
Myosin Heavy Chains - biosynthesis - genetics
Obesity - metabolism
Oxidative Stress
RNA, Messenger - biosynthesis - genetics
Registries
Sex Characteristics
Twins, Dizygotic
Twins, Monozygotic
Abstract
The protein complex AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is believed to play an important role in the regulation of skeletal muscle glucose and lipid metabolism. Defects in the AMPK system might therefore be an important factor in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes. We aimed to identify genetic and environmental mechanisms involved in the regulation of AMPK expression and activity and to examine the association between AMPK protein levels and activity on the one hand, and glucose and fat metabolism on the other. We investigated skeletal muscle biopsies from 100 young and 82 older mono- and dizygotic nondiabetic twins excised during the basal and insulin-stimulated states of a physiological hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp. AMPKalpha1, -alpha2, and -gamma3 mRNA expression was investigated using real-time PCR, and Western blotting was employed to measure protein levels. Multiple regression analyses indicated that skeletal muscle AMPK mRNA and protein expression as well as activity were regulated by sex, age, obesity, and aerobic capacity. Comparison of intraclass correlations on AMPK measurements from mono- and dizygotic twins suggested that skeletal muscle AMPK expression was under minor genetic influence. AMPKgamma3 protein expression and activity were negatively related to whole body glucose uptake through the nonoxidative metabolic pathway and positively related to phosphorylation of glycogen synthase. Our results suggest that skeletal muscle AMPK expression is under minor genetic control but regulated by age and sex and associated with obesity and aerobic capacity. Furthermore, our results indicate a role for gamma3-containing AMPK complexes in downregulation of insulin-stimulated nonoxidative glucose metabolism possibly through inhibition of glycogen synthase activity.
PubMed ID
19671840 View in PubMed
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